Observation of Ti4+ ions in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma

Andersson, Joakim; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Anders, André
August 2008
Applied Physics Letters;8/18/2008, Vol. 93 Issue 7, p071504
Academic Journal
Multiply charged titanium ions including Ti4+ were observed in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges. Mass/charge spectrometry was used to identify metal ion species. Quadruply charged titanium ions were identified by isotope-induced broadening at mass/charge 12. Due to their high potential energy, Ti4+ ions give a high yield of secondary electrons, which in turn are likely to be responsible for the generation of multiply charged states.


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