Left out: Perspectives on social exclusion and inclusion across income groups

Stewart, Miriam; Reutler, Linda; Makwarimba, Edward; Veenstra, Gerry; Love, Rhonda; Raphael, Dennis
June 2008
Health Sociology Review;Jun2008, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p78
Academic Journal
The goal of this paper is to explore the experiences of exclusion and inclusion of both low and higher-income people within a 'social determinants of health framework'. In the first phase of this research, individual interviews with 60 high-income and 59 low-income participants, and group interviews with 34 low-income participants were conducted. During the second phase, 1671 higher and low-income participants were surveyed by telephone. The findings revealed that inadequate financial resources, ill-health, and unwelcoming behaviours inhibited participation in community activities among low-income respondents. Higher-income earners were more likely to engage in social and group civic activities. Participants in the low-income category were less able to participate in desired activities due to user fees and poor health. Data revealed significant relationships between self-rated health and measures of exclusion and inclusion. Based on the responses of participants, the paper concludes that structural rather than interpersonal change contributes significantly to increased levels of social inclusion, and ultimately, improvements in health outcomes.


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