Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements of quasi-isentropically compressed vanadium targets on the OMEGA laser

Yaakobi, B.; Boehly, T. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Remington, B. A.; Allen, P. G.; Pollaine, S. M.; Lorenzana, H. E.; Lorenz, K. T.; Hawreliak, J. A.
June 2008
Physics of Plasmas;Jun2008, Vol. 15 Issue 6, p062703
Academic Journal
The use of in situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for characterizing nanosecond laser-shocked vanadium, titanium, and iron has recently been demonstrated. These measurements are extended to laser-driven, quasi-isentropic compression experiments (ICE). The radiation source (backlighter) for EXAFS in all of these experiments is obtained by imploding a spherical target on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508 (1995)]. Isentropic compression (where the entropy is kept constant) enables to reach high compressions at relatively low temperatures. The absorption spectra are used to determine the temperature and compression in a vanadium sample quasi-isentropically compressed to pressures of up to ∼0.75 Mbar. The ability to measure the temperature and compression directly is unique to EXAFS. The drive pressure is calibrated by substituting aluminum for the vanadium and interferometrically measuring the velocity of the back target surface by the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). The experimental results obtained by EXAFS and VISAR agree with each other and with the simulations of a hydrodynamic code. The role of a shield to protect the sample from impact heating is studied. It is shown that the shield produces an initial weak shock that is followed by a quasi-isentropic compression at a relatively low temperature. The role of radiation heating from the imploding target as well as from the laser-absorption region is studied. The results show that in laser-driven ICE, as compared with laser-driven shocks, comparable compressions can be achieved at lower temperatures. The EXAFS results show important details not seen in the VISAR results.


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