Vulnérabilité sismique des constructions de type béton armé au Nord du Maroc

Bezzazi, Mohammed; Khamlichi, Abdellatif; González, José Ramón Arango
June 2008
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering;Jun2008, Vol. 35 Issue 6, p600
Academic Journal
The concept of earth quake vulnerability is used in this work to predict the average damage that buildings are likely to experience on a large scale with the occurrence of an earthquake of given intensity. The use of the vulnerability concept is considered in the context of the particular typology of reinforced concrete buildings, which are commonly encountered in northern Morocco and which have not been engineered with adequate earthquake protection. The vulnerability scale is adapted based on the Italian method called “Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti” (GNDT) by adjusting the weighting coefficients to better match the local architectural characteristics of these types of buildings. A correlation is then proposed between the damage index considered as the main tracked effect and the causes that are herein idealized through the vulnerability concept. The results of field observations performed after the strong earthquake in Al Hoceima of magnitude 6.3 that hit the region of northern Morocco in 2004 have shown that the proposed method can correctly evaluate vulnerability. Relative fragility curves for this building typology are finally depicted. Dans ce travail, le concept de vulnérabilité sismique est utilisé afin de prédire le niveau moyen des dégâts pouvant se produire à grande échelle dans les bâtiments sous l’action d’une secousse sismique d’intensité connue. L’emploi de la notion de vulnérabilité est considéré dans le contexte de la typologie particulière des constructions en béton armé communément rencontrées au Nord du Maroc et n’ayant pas fait l’objet d’une conception parasismique assurant une protection adéquate. L’échelle de vulnérabilité est adaptée à partir de la méthode italienne dite « Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti » (GNDT), où un recalage des coefficients de pondération est effectué afin de mieux coller aux caractéristiques architecturales locales de ce type de constructions. Une corrélation est ensuite proposée entre l’indice des dégâts considéré comme l’effet principal recherché et les causes schématisées formellement à travers la notion de vulnérabilité. Les résultats d’une enquête menée sur le terrain après le fort tremblement de terre de magnitude 6,3 qui a frappé la région d’Al Hoceima au Nord du Maroc en 2004 ont montré que la méthode proposée permet d’évaluer correctement la vulnérabilité. Les courbes de fragilité relatives à cette typologie de bâtiments ont été enfin dressées.


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