TITLE

Cancer and Low Dose Responses in Vivo: Implications for Radiation Protection

AUTHOR(S)
Mitchel, R. E. J.
PUB. DATE
October 2007
SOURCE
Dose-Response;2007, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p284
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
The Linear No Threshold (LNT) hypothesis states that ionizing radiation risk is directly proportional to dose, without a threshold. This hypothesis, along with a number of additional derived or auxiliary concepts such as radiation and tissue type weighting factors, and dose rate reduction factors, are used to calculate radiation risk estimates for humans, and are therefore fundamental for radiation protection practices. This system is based mainly on epidemiological data of cancer risk in human populations exposed to relatively high doses (above 100 mSv), with the results linearly extrapolated back to the low doses typical of current exposures. The system therefore uses dose as a surrogate for risk. There is now a large body of information indicating that, at low doses, the LNT hypothesis, along with most of the derived and auxiliary concepts, is incorrect. The use of dose as a predictor of risk needs to be re-examined and the use of dose limits, as a means of limiting risk needs to be re-evaluated. This re-evaluation could lead to large changes in radiation protection practices.
ACCESSION #
32523431

 

Related Articles

  • Non-Problematic Risks from Low-Dose Radiation-Induced DNA Damage Clusters. Hayes, Daniel P. // Dose-Response;2008, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p30 

    Radiation-induced DNA damage clusters have been proposed and are usually considered to pose the threat of serious biological damage. This has been attributed to DNA repair debilitation or cessation arising from the complexity of cluster damage. It will be shown here, contrary to both previous...

  • X REFERENCE RADIATION QUALITIES PRODUCED WITH TUBE VOLTAGES ABOVE 300 kV FOR THE CALIBRATION AND TESTING OF DOSEMETERS. U. Ankerhold // Radiation Protection Dosimetry;2007, Vol. 123 Issue 2, p137 

    In the international standard ISO 4037-1, only X reference radiation qualities produced with tube voltages of up to 300 kV and with mean photon energies of lower than 250 keV are defined. Higher energy reference photon fields are given with a mean energy only from 662 keV (S�Cs) upwards. To...

  • Multidetector CT in children: current concepts and dose reduction strategies. Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; van Dam, Ingrid M.; van der Molen, Aart J. // Pediatric Radiology;Aug2010, Vol. 40 Issue 8, p1324 

    The recent technical development of multidetector CT (MDCT) has contributed to a substantial increase in its diagnostic applications and accuracy in children. A major drawback of MDCT is the use of ionising radiation with the risk of inducing secondary cancer. Therefore, justification and...

  • Distant Measurement of Dose Rate of Ionizing Radiation by Virtual Instrumentation. Gavrovski, Cvetan; Kokolanski, Zivko // Annual Journal of Electronics;2011, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p137 

    Distant measurement approach has being widely used in solving different measurement applications. In some cases, different physical quantities have to be measured over long time period, such as ionizing radiation, wind parameters or power quality. Very often, in such applications, real time...

  • rad. Peters, Michael // BMA A-Z Family Medical Encyclopedia;2004, p644 

    An encyclopedia entry for "rad" is presented. It refers to a unit absorbed dose of ionizing radiation that stands for radiation absorbed dose. It has been superseded by the gray (Gy).

  • sievert. Peters, Michael // BMA A-Z Family Medical Encyclopedia;2004, p689 

    An encyclopedia entry for "sievert" is presented. It refers to a unit for measuring doses of ionizing radiation.

  • Radiation Hormesis: Historical Perspective and Implications for Low-Dose Cancer Risk Assessment. Vaiserman, Alexander M. // Dose-Response;2010, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p172 

    Current guidelines for limiting exposure of humans to ionizing radiation are based on the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for radiation carcinogenesis under which cancer risk increases linearly as the radiation dose increases. With the LNT model even a very small dose could cause cancer and...

  • Current Trends in Estimating Risk of Cancer from Exposure to Low Doses of Ionising Radiation. Majer, Marija; Knežević, Željka; Saveta, Miljanić // Archives of Industrial Hygiene & Toxicology / Arhiv za Higijenu ;Sep2014, Vol. 65 Issue 3, p251 

    Although ionising radiation has proven beneficial in the diagnosis and therapy of a number of diseases, one should keep in mind that irradiating healthy tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In order to justify an exposure to radiation, both the benefits and the risks must be evaluated and...

  • Radiation protection.  // Nuclear Law Bulletin;2005, Issue 76, p80 

    The article deals with a regulation on ionising radiation dose limits in Poland in 2005. Dose equivalents were measured in terms of effective doses for workers based on calendar schedules. Several exceptions were implemented in dosage establishment. The regulation intended to set values and...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics