Ways of Knowing in Nursing: The Historical Evolution of a Concept

Zander, Patricia E.
April 2007
Journal of Theory Construction & Testing;Spring/Summer2007, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p7
Academic Journal
Using Rodger's (2000) model of concept analysis the historical evolution of ways of knowing in nursing will be discussed. The ways of knowing in nursing will be explored through their antecedents of learning styles and knowledge, their attributes, and their consequences. The primary focus of the article is the four ways or patterns of knowing in nursing identified by Carper (1978) which have become known as nursing's epistemology. Jacobs-Kramer and Chinn (1997) later described these elements of the epistemology in depth with Silva, Sorrell, and Sorrell (1995) using them to explicate the ontology of nursing.


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