LC–MS–MS identification of albendazole and flubendazole metabolites formed ex vivo by Haemonchus contortus

Cvilink, Viktor; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora; Lamka, Jiří; Kostiainen, Risto; Ketola, Raimo A.
May 2008
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;May2008, Vol. 391 Issue 1, p337
Academic Journal
Resistance of helminth parasites to common anthelminthics is a problem of increasing importance. The full mechanism of resistance development is still not thoroughly elucidated. There is also limited information about helminth enzymes involved in metabolism of anthelminthics. Identification of the metabolites formed by parasitic helminths can serve to specify which enzymes take part in biotransformation of anthelminthics and may participate in resistance development. The aim of our work was to identify the metabolic pathways of the anthelminthic drugs albendazole (ABZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in Haemonchus contortus, a world-wide distributed helminth parasite of ruminants. ABZ and FLU are benzimidazole anthelminthics commonly used in parasitoses treatment. In our ex vivo study one hundred living adults of H. contortus, obtained from the abomasum of an experimentally infected lamb, were incubated in 5 mL RPMI-1640 medium with 10 μmol L−1 benzimidazole drug (10% CO2, 38 °C) for 24 h. The parasite bodies were then removed from the medium. After homogenization of the parasites, both parasite homogenates and medium from the incubation were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive-ion mode. The acquired data showed that H. contortus can metabolize ABZ via sulfoxidation and FLU via reduction of a carbonyl group. Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and reduced flubendazole (FLUR) were the only phase I metabolites detected. Concerning phase II of biotransformation, the formation of glucose conjugates of ABZ, FLU, and FLUR was observed. All metabolites mentioned were found in both parasite homogenates and medium from the incubation.


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