TITLE

Pathogenesis of cerebral white matter injury of prematurity

AUTHOR(S)
Khwaja, O.; Volpe, J. J.
PUB. DATE
March 2008
SOURCE
Archives of Disease in Childhood -- Fetal & Neonatal Edition;Mar2008, Vol. 93 Issue 2, pF153
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Cerebral white matter injury, characterised by loss of premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs), is the most common form of injury to the preterm brain and is associated with a high risk of neurodevelopmental impairment. The unique cerebrovascular anatomy and physiology of the premature baby underlies the exquisite sensitivity of white matter to the abnormal milieu of preterm extrauterine life, in particular ischaemia and inflammation. These two upstream mechanisms can coexist and amplify their effects, leading to activation of two principal downstream mechanisms: excitotoxicity and free radical attack. Upstream mechanisms trigger generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The pre-OL is intrinsically vulnerable to free radical attack due to immaturity of antioxidant enzyme systems and iron accumulation. Ischaemia and inflammation trigger glutamate receptor-mediated injury leading to maturation-dependent cell death and loss of cellular processes. This review looks at recent evidence for pathogenetic mechanisms in white matter injury with emphasis on targets for prevention and treatment of injury.
ACCESSION #
31647278

 

Related Articles

  • TNFR1-JNK signaling is the shared pathway of neuroinflammation and neurovascular damage after LPS-sensitized hypoxic-ischemic injury in the immature brain. Lan-Wan Wang; Ying-Chao Chang; Shyi-Jou Chen; Chien-Hang Tseng; Yi-Fang Tu; Nan-Shih Liao; Chao-Ching Huang; Chien-Jung Ho // Journal of Neuroinflammation;2014, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p347 

    Background Hypoxic-ischemia (HI) and inflammation are the two major pathogenic mechanisms of brain injury in very preterm infants. The neurovascular unit is the major target of HI injury in the immature brain. Systemic inflammation may worsen HI by up-regulating neuroinflammation and disrupting...

  • Enzyme Prevents Lung Damage in Premature Infants.  // Ascribe Newswire: Medicine;5/14/2004, p10 

    An enzyme that protects the body from reactive chemicals called free radicals is crucial in preventing the inflammation that causes chronic lung disease in premature infants, according to three new studies. The findings could lead to improved treatments to alleviate such inflammation, preserving...

  • Enzyme Prevents Lung Damage in Premature Infants.  // Ascribe Newswire: Medicine;5/3/2004, p121 

    An enzyme that protects the body from reactive chemicals called free radicals is crucial in preventing the inflammation that causes chronic lung disease in premature infants, according to three new studies. The findings could lead to improved treatments to alleviate such inflammation, preserving...

  • Enzyme Prevents Lung Damage in Premature Infants.  // Ascribe Newswire: Medicine;5/13/2004, p26 

    An enzyme that protects the body from reactive chemicals called free radicals is crucial in preventing the inflammation that causes chronic lung disease in premature infants, according to three new studies. The findings could lead to improved treatments to alleviate such inflammation, preserving...

  • Associations between Maternal and Infant Morbidities and sRAGE within the First Week of Life in Extremely Preterm Infants. Rogers, Lynette K.; Graf, Amanda E.; Bhatia, Anisha; Leonhart, Karen L.; Oza-Frank, Reena // PLoS ONE;Dec2013, Vol. 8 Issue 12, p1 

    Background:Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) has been associated with multiple inflammatory responses including maternal chorioamnionitis and preeclampsia. Analysis of umbilical cord blood levels have also indicated that sRAGE levels in the infant are affected by maternal inflammation. S100b is a ligand for...

  • Recent Progress Toward Hydrogen Medicine: Potential of Molecular Hydrogen for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications. Ohta, Shigeo // Current Pharmaceutical Design;7/21/2011, Vol. 17 Issue 22, p2241 

    Persistent oxidative stress is one of the major causes of most lifestyle-related diseases, cancer and the aging process. Acute oxidative stress directly causes serious damage to tissues. Despite the clinical importance of oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success....

  • Application of high-dose propofol during ischemia improves postischemic function of rat hearts: effects on tissue antioxidant capacity. Zhengyuan Xia; Godin, David V.; Ansley, David M. // Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology;Oct2004, Vol. 82 Issue 10, p919 

    Previous studies have shown that reactive oxygen species mediated lipid peroxidation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery occurs primarily during cardiopulmonary bypass. We examined whether application of a high concentration of propofol during ischemia could effectively enhance postischemic...

  • Effect of Selenium-Saturated Bovine Lactoferrin (Se-bLF) on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Human Gut Epithelial Cells Under Oxidative Stress. Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Jagat R. // Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 8, p762 

    Cancer and many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential cellular and tissue damage created by ROS has significant impact on many disease and cancer states and natural therapeutics are becoming essential in regulating...

  • The Role of Cytokines and Inflammatory Cells in Perinatal Brain Injury. McAdams, Ryan M.; Juul, Sandra E. // Neurology Research International;2012, p1 

    Perinatal brain injury frequently complicates preterm birth and leads to significant long-term morbidity. Cytokines and inflammatory cells are mediators in the common pathways associated with perinatal brain injury induced by a variety of insults, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, reperfusion...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sign out of this library

Other Topics