Improvement and decline of cognitive function in schizophrenia over one year: a longitudinal investigation using latent growth modelling

Barnett, Jennifer H.; Croudace, Tim J.; Jaycock, Sue; Blackwell, Candice; Hynes, Fiona; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Joyce, Eileen M.; Jones, Peter B.
January 2007
BMC Psychiatry;2007, Vol. 7, p16
Academic Journal
Background: Long-term follow-up studies of people with schizophrenia report stability of cognitive performance; less is known about any shorter-term changes in cognitive function. Methods: This longitudinal study aimed to establish whether there was stability, improvement or decline in memory and executive functions over four assessments undertaken prospectively in one year. Cognitive performance was assessed during randomized controlled trials of first- and second-generation antipsychotic medication. Analyses used a latent growth modeling approach, so that individuals who missed some testing occasions could be included and trajectories of cognitive change explored despite missing data. Results: Over the year there was significant decline in spatial recognition but no change in pattern recognition or motor speed. Improvement was seen in planning and spatial working memory tasks; this may reflect improved strategy use with practice. There were significant individual differences in the initial level of performance on all tasks but not in rate of change; the latter may have been due to sample size limitations. Age, sex, premorbid IQ and drug class allocation explained significant variation in level of performance but could not predict change. Patients randomized to first-generation drugs improved more quickly than other groups on the planning task. Conclusion: We conclude that cognitive change is present in schizophrenia but the magnitude of change is small when compared with the large differences in cognitive function that exist between patients. Analyses that retain patients who drop out of longitudinal studies, as well as those who complete testing protocols, are important to our understanding of cognition in schizophrenia.


Related Articles

  • VERBAL, VISUOSPATIAL AND FACE WORKING MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN MULTIPLE EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS. Cosman, Doina; Nemeş, Bogdan; Nica, Sorin; Herţa, Dana-Cristina // Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies;Mar2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p21 

    Memory impairment has been acknowledged as a core cognitive deficit in schizophrenia, and it is present irrespective of specific features related to the patient or the evolution of the disorder. It is suggested that distinct functional subsystems of memory are differently impaired in these...

  • Origins of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: clues from age at onset. Joyce, Eileen // British Journal of Psychiatry;Feb2005, Vol. 186, p93 

    The article discusses the cognitive dysfunction at the age of onset in people suffering with schizophrenia. A person who is ailing with schizophrenia gets psychotic disorders. A study concluded that an understanding of the factors which contribute to age at onset helps in giving relevant...

  • Associations between TCF4 Gene Polymorphism and Cognitive Functions in Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls. Zhu, Xianghua; Gu, Huang; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Zhansheng; Chen, Xiongying; Sun, Xiaochen; Zhai, Jinguo; Zhang, Qiumei; Chen, Min; Wang, Keqin; Deng, Xiaoxiang; Ji, Feng; Liu, Chuanxin; Li, Jun; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng // Neuropsychopharmacology;Mar2013, Vol. 38 Issue 4, p683 

    The SNP rs2958182 was reported to be significantly associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) in Han Chinese. This study examined this SNP's associations with cognitive functions in 580 SCZ patients and 498 controls. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised...

  • 'Filtering' and the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Hemsley, D. R.; Zawada, S. L. // British Journal of Psychiatry;May76, Vol. 128, p456 

    This study attempted to clarify the nature of dysfunction in the selective attention of schizophrenics. Within the framework of Broadbent's (1971) theory of information processing it was argued that 'filtering' inefficiency should be reflected in a reduction in the discrepancy in performance on...

  • The Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Gamma Oscillatory Activity in Schizophrenia. Barr, Mera S.; Farzan, Faranak; Arenovich, Tamara; Chen, Robert; Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J. // PLoS ONE;2011, Vol. 6 Issue 7, p1 

    Background: Gamma (c) oscillations (30-50 Hz) have been shown to be excessive in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) during working memory (WM). WM is a cognitive process that involves the online maintenance and manipulation of information that is mediated largely by the dorsolateral prefrontal...

  • Neuregulin 1 ICE-single nucleotide polymorphism in first episode schizophrenia correlates with cerebral activation in fronto-temporal areas. Kircher, Tilo; Thienel, Renate; Wagner, Michael; Reske, Martina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo; Frommann, Ingo; Schwab, Sibylle; Wölwer, Wolfgang; von Wilmsdorf, Martina; Braus, Dieter F.; Schmitt, Andrea; Rapp, Alexander; Stöcker, Tony; Shah, N. Jon; Henn, Fritz A.; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Schneider, Frank // European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience;Mar2009, Vol. 259 Issue 2, p72 

    The Neuregulin (NRG1) gene has been associated with schizophrenia, but its functional implications are largely unknown. Our aim was to assess differential brain activation between patients carrying an at-risk allele on the Neuregulin 1 gene and patients without this genetic risk. Neural signal...

  • Nicotine improves delayed recognition in schizophrenic patients. Myers, Carol S.; Robles, Olalla; Kakoyannis, A. Nancy; Sherr, Jay D.; Avila, Matthew T.; Blaxton, Teresa A.; Thaker, Gunvant K. // Psychopharmacology;2004, Vol. 174 Issue 3, p334 

    Rationale. Nicotine has been shown to enhance some aspects of memory, attention and cognition in normal subjects and in some patient populations such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease groups. Objectives. Memory disorders are consistently observed in schizophrenic patients, so...

  • Contribution of Working Memory Components to the Performance of the Tower of Hanoi in Schizophrenia. Chan, R. C. K.; Wang, Y. N.; Cao, X. Y.; Chen, E. Y. H. // East Asian Archives of Psychiatry;Jun2010, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p69 

    Objectives: To examine the underlying structure of neuropsychological tests involving working memory components and those not involving working memory components that contribute to the performance of the Tower of Hanoi task in schizophrenic patients. Participants and Methods: A total of 90...

  • Complexity of prefrontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia: more than up or down.  // Current Medical Literature: Psychiatry;2004, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p45 

    Discusses research being done on the function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Reference to a study by J. H. Callicott, V. S. Mattay, B. A. Verchinski, S. Marenco and M. F. Egan, published in the 2003 issue of the "American Journal of Psychiatry"; Methodology used;...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics