Mitochondrial oxidative stress and nitrate tolerance -- comparison of nitroglycerin and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in Mn-SOD+/- mice

Mollnau, Hanke; Wenzel, Philip; Oelze, Matthias; Treiber, Nicolai; Pautz, Andrea; Schulz, Eberhard; Schuhmacher, Swenja; Reifenberg, Kurt; Stalleicken, Dirk; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Kleinert, Hartmut; Munzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas
January 2006
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders;2006, Vol. 6, p1
Academic Journal
Background: Chronic therapy with nitroglycerin (GTN) results in a rapid development of nitrate tolerance which is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). According to recent studies, mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative inactivation of the organic nitrate bioactivating enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) play an important role for the development of nitrate and cross-tolerance. Methods: Tolerance was induced by infusion of wild type (WT) and heterozygous manganese superoxide dismutase mice (Mn-SOD+/-) with ethanolic solution of GTN (12.5 µg/min/kg for 4 d). For comparison, the tolerance-free pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN, 17.5 µg/min/kg for 4 d) was infused in DMSO. Vascular reactivity was measured by isometric tension studies of isolated aortic rings. ROS formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity was measured in isolated heart mitochondria. Results: Chronic GTN infusion lead to impaired vascular responses to GTN and acetylcholine (ACh), increased the ROS formation in mitochondria and decreased ALDH-2 activity in Mn-SOD+/- mice. In contrast, PETN infusion did not increase mitochondrial ROS formation, did not decrease ALDH-2 activity and accordingly did not lead to tolerance and cross-tolerance in Mn-SOD+/- mice. PETN but not GTN increased heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in EA.hy 926 cells and bilirubin efficiently scavenged GTN-derived ROS. Conclusion: Chronic GTN infusion stimulates mitochondrial ROS production which is an important mechanism leading to tolerance and cross-tolerance. The tetranitrate PETN is devoid of mitochondrial oxidative stress induction and according to the present animal study as well as numerous previous clinical studies can be used without limitations due to tolerance and cross-tolerance.


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