Steep HIV prevalence declines among young people in selected Zambian communities: population-based observations (1995-2003)

Michelo, Charles; Sandøy, Ingvild F.; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Siziya, Seter; Fylkesnes, Knut
January 2006
BMC Public Health;2006, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p279
Academic Journal
Background: Understanding the epidemiological HIV context is critical in building effective setting-specific preventive strategies. We examined HIV prevalence patterns in selected communities of men and women aged 15-59 years in Zambia. Methods: Population-based HIV surveys in 1995 (n = 3158), 1999 (n = 3731) and 2003 (n = 4751) were conducted in selected communities using probability proportional to size stratified random-cluster sampling. Multivariate logistic regression and trend analyses were stratified by residence, sex and age group. Absence, <30% in men and <15% in women in all rounds, was the most important cause of non-response. Saliva was used for HIV testing, and refusal was <10%. Results: Among rural groups aged 15-24 years, prevalence declined by 59.2% (15.7% to 6.4%, P < 0.001) in females and by 44.6% (5.6% to 3.1%, P < 0.001) in males. In age-group 15-49 years, declines were less than 25%. In the urban groups aged 15-24, prevalence declined by 47% (23.4% to 12.4%, P < 0.001) among females and 57.3% (7.5% to 3.2%, P = 0.001) among males but were 32% and 27% in men and women aged 15-49, respectively. Higher educated young people in 2003 had lower odds of infection than in 1995 in both urban [men: AOR 0.29(95%CI 0.14-0.60); women: AOR 0.38(95%CI 0.19-0.79)] and rural groups [men: AOR 0.16(95%CI 0.11-0.25), women: AOR 0.10(95%CI 0.01-7.34)]. Although higher mobility was associated with increased likelihood of infection in men overall, AOR, 1.71(95%CI 1.34-2.19), prevalence declined in mobile groups also (OR 0.52 95%CI 0.31-0.88). In parallel, urban young people with ≥11 school years were more likely to use condoms during the last casual sex (OR 2.96 95%CI 1.93-4.52) and report less number of casual sexual partners (AOR 0.33 95%CI 0.19-0.56) in the last twelve months than lower educated groups. Conclusion: Steep HIV prevalence declines in young people, suggesting continuing declining incidence, were masked by modest overall declines. The concentration of declines in higher educated groups suggests a plausible association with behavioural change.


Related Articles

  • AIDS update: How saliva thwarts HIV. Rudavksy, Shari // Self;Jul95, Vol. 17 Issue 7, p54 

    Reports on a study which looked at why AIDS is hardly ever transmitted through kissing. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) protein in saliva as the cause; Presence of SLPI in cervical mucus.

  • BECAUSE IT'S THERE. Koretz, Ronald L. // American Journal of Gastroenterology (Springer Nature);Dec1993, Vol. 88 Issue 12, p1991 

    Introduces an article about research on HIV infections published in the December 1993 issue of the "American Journal of Gastroenterology."

  • MEXICO.  // Advocate;11/5/91, Issue 589, p34 

    Reports on the development of a method of detecting HIV through saliva in Mexico.

  • ORAL FLUID-BASED TEST MAY BE COMPARABLE TO BLOOD TEST IM DIAGNOSING HIV, STUDY SHOWS.  // Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA);Apr2012, Vol. 143 Issue 4, p335 

    The article reports on the study coducted by researchers from Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC) and McGill University, which showed that oral fluid-based test is comparable in accuracy with blood test when used to diagnose human immunodefficiency virus (HIV).

  • Economic burden of osteoarthritis in the US.  // PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News;2/6/2010, Issue 596, p6 

    The article focuses on the research "Insurer and Out-of-Pocket Costs of Osteoarthritic in the U.S.: Evidence from National Survey Data," by H. Kotlarz, published in an issue of "Arthritis and Rheumatism."

  • Etravirine cost effective for multidrug resistant HIV-1.  // PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News;2/6/2010, Issue 596, p6 

    The article summarizes the findings of the study "Cost-effectiveness of Etravirine in Sweden in Treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected Adults with Evidence of NNRTI Resistance and 3 PI Mutations," by K. Moeremans et al.

  • Young Malawi Women Who Get Payments for Schooling Are Less Likely to Get HIV. Thomas, J. // International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health;Jun2012, Vol. 38 Issue 2, p114 

    The article discusses research which was reported in the article "Effect of a Cash Transfer Programme for Schooling on Prevalence of HIV and Herpes Simplex Type 2 in Malawi: A Cluster Randomised Trial" by S. J. Baird et al. The research, which featured a cluster randomized trial that included...

  • Sources of error and bias in methods of fertility estimation contingent on the P/F ratio in a time of declining fertility and rising mortality. Moultrie, Tom A.; Dorrington, Rob // Demographic Research;Jul/Dec2008, Vol. 19, p1635 

    The most commonly used indirect fertility estimation methods rely on the use of the P/F ratio, first proposed by Brass. In essence, the ratio compares cumulated cohort fertility with cumulated period fertility on the basis of three, fairly strong, assumptions. First, that the level of fertility...

  • Manifestations of tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS patients and its relationship with CD4 count. Jaryal, Ajay; Raina, Rajeev; Sarkar, Malay; Sharma, Ashok // Lung India;Oct-Dec2011, Vol. 28 Issue 4, p263 

    Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic is responsible for the resurgence of TB worldwide, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have a synergistic interaction; each propagates progression of the other. Coinfection with HIV infection leads to difficulties in...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics