Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

Stich, Heribert L.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Caniato, Riccardo N.; Krämer, Alexander
January 2006
BMC Public Health;2006, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p260
Academic Journal
Background: Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods: In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997-2002) we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results: We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5%) were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5%) for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance) compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation). Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly elevated rates of impairment (up to 12.7%), compared to their rural counterparts (up to 11.1%). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that there are high prevalence rates for physical and mental impairments among preschool children. Furthermore, children without preschool experience are a risk group for struggling with educational successes. The associations between the duration of preschool attendance and location of preschool attended and rates of impairment need replication and further exploration. Larger prospective studies are needed to examine if these relationships are causal and may therefore lend themselves to specific intervention strategies.


Related Articles

  • The Learning Disabilities Act of 1969, A Commentary. Yarborough, Ralph W. // Journal of Learning Disabilities;Sep1969, Vol. 2 Issue 9, p437 

    The article reports that in addition to providing the means to improve the educational systems, the U.S. Congress has given special attention to those unfortunate children whose special needs the education system must satisfy if they are to develop to their potential and participate as first...

  • LANGUAGE DISABILITIES AND THE LANGUAGE CLINICIAN. Chappell, Gerald E. // Journal of Learning Disabilities;Dec1972, Vol. 5 Issue 10, p610 

    A viewpoint is shared relative to the nature of some of the more subtle language disabilities experienced by school age children. The result- ant breakdown in language performance and of the interruption of learning and communication is considered. Finally, a therapy program is recommended to...

  • DISABILITY OF 'STUDENT IN SCHOOL AGE... Francesco, Perrotta // Journal of Physical Education & Sport / Citius Altius Fortius;2010, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p88 

    Schools should play a significant role in spreading the message understanding and acceptance of disability rights, helping to dispel fears, myths and prejudices, supporting the efforts of the whole community. Should develop and disseminate educational resources to support students to develop an...

  • Results of global research on depression.  // Trimbos Quarterly;Sep2011, Issue 3, p1 

    The article focuses on the result of a global research on the demographic risk factors and functional limitations associated with the prevalence of depressive disorder. It informs that researchers have collected data from 18 western and non-western countries that participated in the World Health...

  • Pros and cons of estimating the reproduction number from early epidemic growth rate of influenza A (H1N1) 2009. Nishiura, Hiroshi; Chowell, Gerardo; Safan, Muntaser; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos // Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling;2010, Vol. 7, p1 

    Background: In many parts of the world, the exponential growth rate of infections during the initial epidemic phase has been used to make statistical inferences on the reproduction number, R, a summary measure of the transmission potential for the novel influenza A (H1N1) 2009. The growth rate...

  • AGE-RELATED PARENTING STRESS DIFFERENCES IN MOTHERS OF CHILDREN WITH SPINA BIFIDA. Maclas, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.; Rowe, Brandy P.; Bell, Nancy L. // Psychological Reports;Dec2003 Part 2, Vol. 93 Issue 3, p1223 

    This study examined whether ages of child and parent were risk factors for general parenting stress and disability-specific stress in families of children with spina bifida. Parents of 64 children with spina bifida completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Parents of Children with...

  • Postnatal dexamethasone affects neuromotor and cognitive function.  // Reactions Weekly;4/3/2004, Issue 995, p3 

    Discusses research being done on the effect of postnatal use of dexamethasone for the prevention of chronic lung disease of prematurity on neuromotor and cognitive function at school age. Reference to a study by T. F. Yeh et al, published in the March 25, 2004 issue of the "New England Journal...

  • Neonatal Pain-Related Stress and NFKBIA Genotype Are Associated with Altered Cortisol Levels in Preterm Boys at School Age. Grunau, Ruth E.; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Chau, Cecil M. Y.; Brummelte, Susanne; Weinberg, Joanne; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Ladd, Mihoko; Hirschfeld, Aaron F.; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Van Uum, Stan; Brant, Rollin; Turvey, Stuart E. // PLoS ONE;Sep2013, Vol. 8 Issue 9, p1 

    Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming...

  • Neonatal cerebral infarction and visual function at school age. Mercuri, E.; Anker, S.; Guzzetta, A.; Barnett, A.; Haataja, L.; Rutherford, M.; Cowan, F.; Dubowitz, L.; Braddick, O.; Atkinson, J. // Archives of Disease in Childhood -- Fetal & Neonatal Edition;Nov2003, Vol. 88 Issue 6, pF487 

    Objective: To assess various aspects of visual function at school age in children with neonatal cerebral infarction. Patients and methods: Sixteen children born at term, who had cerebral infarction of perinatal onset on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed using a battery of...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics