TITLE

Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

AUTHOR(S)
Bhatnagar, Vibha; Stoto, Michael A.; Morton, Sally C.; Boer, Rob; Bozzette, Samuel A.
PUB. DATE
January 2006
SOURCE
BMC Public Health;2006, Vol. 6, p126
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results: 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R) was 2 (range 0-38). The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases) and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1) and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations); outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12) and were shorter (median of 3 generations). Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases) and longer (median of 3 generations) compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation). Conclusion: Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.
ACCESSION #
29362272

 

Related Articles

  • Japan admits to use of biological weapons in Second World War.  // Nature;9/5/2002, Vol. 419 Issue 6902, p8 

    Reports that a Japanese court has acknowledged that the country's army used biological weapons against Chinese civilians during World War II but has dismissed compensation claims made by the victims and their families.

  • Churchill's secret biological weapons. Bernstein, Barton J. // Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists;Jan/Feb1987, Vol. 43 Issue 1, p46 

    Focuses on Great Britain's plans to use biological weapons during World War II. Biological weapons research; Ordering of anthrax bombs from the U.S.; 'Most secret' status of the British biological weapons program; British officials' fears that Germany would learn of British biological warfare...

  • Gruinard Island handed back. Aldhous, P. // Nature;4/26/1990, Vol. 344 Issue 6269, p801 

    Reports that the UK Ministry of Defense is handing back Gruinard Island, off of Scotland, nearly 50 years after it was requisitioned for wartime biological experiments. Bombs containing anthrax spores were detonated in 1942 and 1943; Island now proclaimed safe.

  • Tools of Biological Warfare. Al-Agamy, Mohamed H.M. // Research Journal of Microbiology;2011, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p193 

    No abstract available.

  • Lethal legacy. Hadfield, Peter // New Scientist;02/03/2001, Vol. 169 Issue 2276, p5 

    Discusses a case between China and Japan, in which relations of Chinese people who died from outbreaks of rare diseases are suing the Japanese government for its use of biological weapons in World War II. Contention by Japan that biological weapons were not used; Deaths in China from outbreaks...

  • Lytle S. Adams Proposed one of America's Battiest Weapons. Powles, James M. // World War II;Jul2002, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p62 

    Provides information on a weapon proposed by U.S. dentist and oral surgeon Lytle S. Adams that used bats as combatants against Japan during World War II. Details of the scheme and its development; Amount spent on the bat project; Reason for its cancellation despite the successful tests.

  • Japan's biological weapons: 1930-1945. Gomer, Robert; Powell, John W.; Röling, Bert V. A. // Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists;Oct1981, Vol. 37 Issue 8, p43 

    The article presents a report on the psychological climate engendered by the Second World War. Helpless prisoners were killed and tortured by the Japanese in search of cheap and effective weapon. During this period, the United States dropped two nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan...

  • The New Face of War. Baldwin, Hanson W. // Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists;May1956, Vol. 12 Issue 5, p153 

    The article examines on the technological revolution of the world, which illustrates the immense changes in the art of war. These include the weapons, tactics and strategies that have occurred in short span of world history, and that most of these changes have been compressed into the last...

  • North Korea: The War Game.  // Future Survey;Jun2005, Vol. 27 Issue 6, p6 

    Focuses on the threat posed by North Korea to the U.S. national security discussed in the article "North Korea: The War Game," by Scott Stossel, published in the July 2005 issue of the periodical "The Atlantic Monthly." Speculations on the chemical and biological weapons possessed by North...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics