Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

Vong, Sirenda; Perz, Joseph F.; Srun Sok; Seiharath Som; Goldstein, Susan; Hutin, Yvan; Tulloch, James
January 2005
BMC Public Health;2005, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p56
Academic Journal
Background: Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%), HCV (6.5%), and HIV (2.6%) infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods: We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results: Among the general population sample (n = 500), the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85%) of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60) reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60), 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53%) of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe injection practices. Knowledge of HIV transmission through "dirty" syringes among the general population was also high (95%). Conclusion: Our data suggest that Cambodia has one of the world's highest rates of overall injection usage, despite general awareness of associated infection risks. Although there was little evidence of reuse of needles and syringes, support is needed for interventions to address injection overuse, healthcare worker safety and appropriate waste disposal.


Related Articles

  • Senior German health officials sacked. Abbott, Alison // Nature;10/14/1993, Vol. 365 Issue 6447, p594 

    Reports on the sacking of the president and director of Germany's federal public health bureau. Suppression of information about the extent of HIV contamination of blood products in the 1980s; Ineptitude for overseeing health regulations; Complaints by health minister Horst Seehofer regarding a...

  • IT STARTS WITH YOU!  // BOYZ;5/15/2014, Issue 1185, p14 

    The article focuses on the campaign "It Starts With Me" by Public Health England that highlights the risk of unprotected sex and men testing for tackling with undiagnosed infection of HIV.

  • Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible? Okware, Sam; Opio, Alex; Musinguzi, Joshua; Waibale, Paul // Bulletin of the World Health Organization;2001, Vol. 79 Issue 12, p1113 

    Abstract The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV...

  • HIV infects.  // Discover;Jan1999, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p42 

    Reports on the rate of HIV infection among adults in nine African countries.

  • In Cambodia.  // Discover;Jan1999, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p42 

    Reports on the rate of HIV infection among pregnant women, soldiers and prostitutes in Cambodia.

  • Occupational Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Becker, Charles E.; Cone, James E.; Gerberding, Julie // Annals of Internal Medicine;4/15/89, Vol. 110 Issue 8, p653 

    Provides information on occupational HIV infection which was addressed during the 5th Annual Advances in Occupational Cancer Conference held in December 1988 in San Francisco, California. Implementation of universal blood and body fluid precautions; Adequacy of standards for hospital waste...

  • Late diagnosis/entry into HIV care can result in early deaths among infected.  // AIDS Alert;Mar2008, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p29 

    The article focuses on a study which suggested that despite public health initiatives pushing routine HIV testing, too many people infected with the virus are diagnosed later in the disease, leading to poor health outcomes.

  • Behavioural surveillance: the value of national coordination. McGarrigle, C.A.; Fenton, K.A.; Gill, O.N.; Hughes, G.; Morgan, D.; Evans, B. // Sexually Transmitted Infections;Dec2002, Vol. 78 Issue 6, p398 

    Behavioural surveillance programmes have enabled the description of population patterns of risk behaviours for STI and HIV transmission and aid in the understanding of how epidemics of STI are generated. They have been instrumental in helping to refine public health interventions and inform the...

  • A systematic review of published evidence on intervention impact on condom use in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Foss, A. M.; Hossain, M.; Vickerman, P.T.; Watts, C. H. // Sexually Transmitted Infections;Dec2007, Vol. 83 Issue 8, p510 

    Objective: There has been much debate about the value of condoms in HIV/STI programming. This should be informed by evidence about intervention impact on condom use, but there is limited compiled literature. This review aims to quantify intervention impact on condom use in sub-Saharan Africa and...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics