Self-rated health in Pakistan: results of a national health survey

Ahmad, Khabir; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Chaturvedi, Nish
January 2005
BMC Public Health;2005, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p51
Academic Journal
Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of mortality. In UK, migrants of South Asian descent, compared to native Caucasian populations, have substantially poorer SRH. Despite its validation among migrant South Asian populations and its popularity in developed countries as a useful public health tool, the SRH scale has not been used at a population level in countries in South Asia. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for poor/fair SRH among individuals aged =15 years in Pakistan (n = 9442). Methods: The National Health Survey of Pakistan was a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted between 1990 and 1994, of 18 135 individuals aged 6 months and above; 9442 of them were aged =15 years. Our main outcome was SRH which was assessed using the question: "Would you say your health in general is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" SRH was dichotomized into poor/fair, and good (excellent, very good, or good). Results: Overall 65.1% respondents - 51.3 % men vs. 77.2 % women - rated their health as poor/ fair. We found a significant interaction between sex and age (p < 0.0001). The interaction was due to the gender differences only in the ages 15-19 years, whereas poor/fair SRH at all older ages was more prevalent among women and increased at the same rate as it did among men. We also found province of dwelling, low or middle SES, literacy, rural dwelling and current tobacco use to be independently associated with poor/fair SRH. Conclusion: This is the first study reporting on poor/fair SRH at a population-level in a South Asian country. The prevalence of poor/fair health in Pakistan, especially amongst women, is one of the worst ever reported, warranting immediate attention. Further research is needed to explain why women in Pakistan have, at all ages, poorer SRH than men.


Related Articles

  • Older Americans are not as healthy as older Europeans, study says. Hopkins Tanne, Janice // BMJ: British Medical Journal (Overseas & Retired Doctors Edition;2/21/2009, p433 

    No abstract available.

  • The health and well-being of older people in Nairobi's slums. Kyobutungi, Catherine; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Ezeh, Alex // Global Health Action;2010, Vol. 3, p45 

    Background: Globally, it is estimated that people aged 60 and over constitute more than 11% of the population, with the corresponding proportion in developing countries being 8%. Rapid urbanisation in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA), fuelled in part by rural-urban migration and a devastating HIV/AIDS...

  • A prevalence study of current tobacco smoking in later life community and its association with sociodemographic factors, physical health and mental health status. Marinho, Valeska; Blay, Sergio Luís; Andreoli, Sérgio; Gastal, Fábio // Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology;Jun2008, Vol. 43 Issue 6, p490 

    Evaluate the frequency of current smoking in elderly people living in urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Cross-sectional design. A representative sample of 6,961 elderly, randomly selected subjects, living in a community, was examined to estimate the frequency of current tobacco smoking....

  • Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000): research design, methodology and content. Wen-Harn Pan; Yung-Tai Hung; Ning-Sing Shaw; Wei Lin; Shyh-Dye Lee; Cheng-Fen Chiu; Meng-Chiao Lin; Ssu-Yuan Chen; Chi-Min Hong; Teng-Yuan Huang; Hsing-Yi Chang; Su-Hao Tu; Ya-Hui Chang; Wen-Ting Yeh; Shu-Chen Su // Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Sep2005, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p203 

    The purpose of the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) was to assess the diet, nutrition and health of persons aged 65 and above in Taiwan. A multi-staged, stratified, clustered probability sampling scheme was used in the survey. The survey population was stratified into a...

  • Social and spatial patterns of obesity diffusion over three decades in a Norwegian county population: the HUNT Study. Krokstad, Steinar; Ernstsen, Linda; Sund, Erik R.; Håkon Bjørngaard, Johan; Langhammer, Arnulf; Midthjell, Kristian; Lingaas Holmen, Turid; Holmen, Jostein; Thoen, Håvard; Westin, Steinar // BMC Public Health;2013, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p1 

    Background In order to develop effective preventive strategies, knowledge of trends in socioeconomic and geographical differences in risk factor levels is important. The objective of this study was to examine social and spatial patterns of obesity diffusion in a Norwegian population during three...

  • Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania. Mwanyangala, Mathew A.; Mayombana, Charles; Urassa, Honorathy; Charles, Jensen; Mahutanga, Chrizostom; Abdullah, Salim; Nathan, Rose // Global Health Action;2010, Vol. 3, p36 

    Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There...

  • Income Inequality and Health in Ontario. Xi, Guoliang; Mcdowell, Ian; Nair, Rama; Spasoff, Robert // Canadian Journal of Public Health;May/Jun2005, Vol. 96 Issue 3, p206 

    Objective: To examine the association of income inequality at the public health unit level with individual health status in Ontario. Methods: Cross-sectional multilevel study carried out among subjects aged 25 years or older residing in 42 public health units in Ontario. individual-level data...

  • Fresh ideas from Finland.  // Food & Drink Technology;Apr2007, Vol. 6 Issue 7, ps10 

    The article presents a perspective regarding health-related issues in Finland and Great Britain. The author discusses the comparison of the current intakes of fat, protein and carbohydrates called the macronutrients in both countries. In this connection, the differences in the children's diets...

  • Correlates of extended sitting time in older adults: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey Healthy Aging Cycle. Dogra, Shilpa; Stathokostas, Liza // International Journal of Public Health;Dec2014, Vol. 59 Issue 6, p983 

    Objectives: Sitting time has been identified as an independent predictor of health; however, little is known of the determinants of extended sitting time among older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify potential sociodemographic, physical environment, health-related and...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics