Validating the Time and Change test to screen for dementia in elderly Koreans

Jung-Ae Rhee; Eun-Kyung Chung; Min-Ho Shin
January 2004
BMC Public Health;2004, Vol. 4, p52
Academic Journal
Background: We assessed the applicability of the T&C test as an accurate and convenient means to screen for dementia in primary care and community settings. Methods: The study group comprised 59 patients and 405 community participants, all of who were aged 65 years and over. The time component of the T&C test evaluated the ability of a subject to comprehend clock hands that indicated a time of 11:10, while the change component of the T&C test evaluated the ability of a subject to make 1,000 Won from a group of coins with smaller denominations (one 500, seven 100, and seven 50 Won coins). Results: The T&C test had a sensitivity and specificity of 73.0 and 90.9%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of 93.1, and 66.7%, respectively. The test-retest and interobserver agreement rates were both 95% (κ = 0.91) (time interval, 24 hours). The association between the T&C test and K-MMSE test was modest, while significant (r = 0.422, p < 0.001). The T&C test scores were not influenced by educational status. Conclusions: We conclude that the T&C test is useful as supplemental testing of important domains (e.g., calculation, conceptualization, visuospatial) to traditional measures such as the MMSE. However, because T&C test is simple, rapid, and easy to use, it can be applied conveniently to elderly subjects by non-specialist personnel who receive training.


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