Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Bo Mortensen, Preben
January 2006
BMC Psychiatry;2006, Vol. 6, p2
Academic Journal
Background: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. Methods: We investigated the hypothesis that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample of the Danish population (1.89 million people) including information on all permanent addresses linked with geographical information on all roads and house numbers in Denmark. Schizophrenia in cohort members (10,755 people) was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Results: The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road had a significant effect. The highest risk was found in children living 500-1000 metres from nearest major road (RR = 1.30 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.17-1.44). However, when we accounted for the degree of urbanization, the geographical distance to nearest major road had no significant effect. Conclusion: The cause(s) or exposure(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk were closer related to the degree of urbanization than to the geographical distance to nearest major road. Traffic related exposures might thus be less likely explanations for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk.


Related Articles

  • How Prevalent Is Schizophrenia?  // PLoS Medicine;May2005, Vol. 2 Issue 5, p362 

    Presents an abstract of the study "A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Schizophrenia," by S. Saba, D. Chant, J. Welham and J. McGrath, published in the 2005 issue of "PLoS."

  • Executive dysfunctions in schizophrenia: Relationships to clinical manifestation. Chan, R. C. K.; Chen, E. Y. H.; Cheung, E. F. C.; Cheung, H. K. // European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience;2004, Vol. 254 Issue 4, p256 

    Studies suggest that executive functions in patients with schizophrenia are markedly impaired as compared with normal controls. Most previous studies employed tests of executive functions adopted from frontal lobe neuropsychological paradigms based on lesion studies. This study employed several...

  • Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.  // Current Medical Literature: Psychiatry;2006, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p85 

    The article presents abstracts of schizophrenia and related disorders research. They include "Psychoeducation and compliance in the treatment of schizophrenia: results of the Munich Psychosis Information Project Study," "Influence of age on outcome of psychological treatments in first-episode...

  • Self-Monitoring in Schizophrenia. Farrer, Chl��; Franck, Nicolas // Current Psychiatry Reviews;2007, Vol. 3 Issue 4, p243 

    Many patients suffering from schizophrenia feel dispossessed from some of their actions or thoughts. This dispossession could result from impaired self-monitoring (SM), defined as the ability to monitor self-willed intentions and actions. SM has been widely studied during the past decades with...

  • The Role of Self--Complexity in Reducing Harmful Insight Among Persons with Schizophrenia. Theoretical and Therapeutic Implications. Martens, Willem H. J. // American Journal of Psychotherapy;2009, Vol. 63 Issue 1, p53 

    Persons with schizophrenia who have insight of their disorders might experience depression, hopelessness, and related suicidality. Although the concept of self-complexity appears to be highly relevant as a self-regulating mechanism in the process of coping with depression and hopelessness in...

  • The relationship of saccadic peak velocity to latency: evidence for a new prosaccadic abnormality in schizophrenia. Ramchandran, Rajeev S.; Manoach, Dara S.; Cherkasova, Mariya V.; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Goff, Donald C.; Barton, Jason J. S. // Experimental Brain Research;Nov2004, Vol. 159 Issue 1, p99 

    Antisaccades have not only longer latencies but also lower peak velocities than prosaccades. It is not known whether these latency and velocity differences are related. Studies of non-human primates suggest that prosaccade peak velocity declines as latency from target appearance increases. We...

  • Psychometric properties of the Farsi translation of the kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime version. Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Yazdanshenas, Arash // BMC Psychiatry;2006, Vol. 6, p10 

    Background: Semi-structural clinical interviews are very important in the area of mental health research and services. There were no studies of the reliability and validity of the Farsi (Persian) version of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version...

  • Prevalence of mental disorders in French prisons for men. Falissard, Bruno; Loze, Jean-Yves; Gasquet, Isabelle; Duburc, Anne; de Beaurepaire, Christiane; Fagnani, Francis; Rouillon, Frédéric // BMC Psychiatry;2006, Vol. 6, p33 

    Background: Psychiatric surveys conducted in prison populations find high prevalence rates, but diagnoses may be difficult in this particular context. None of these surveys have been conducted in France. Methods: 800 incarcerated male were sampled at random. Each prisoner was interviewed by a...

  • Molecular characterization of deletion breakpoints in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Weksberg, Rosanna; Stachon, Andrea C.; Squire, Jeremy A.; Moldovan, Laura; Bayani, Jane; Meyn, Stephen; Chow, Eva; Bassett, Anne S. // Human Genetics;Jan2007, Vol. 120 Issue 6, p837 

    22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome with variable expression, including congenital and later onset conditions such as schizophrenia. Most studies indicate that expression does not appear to be related to length of the deletion but there is limited information on...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics