Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]

Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Khademi, Mojgan
January 2004
BMC Psychiatry;2004, Vol. 4, p9
Academic Journal
Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is an early-onset, clinically heterogenous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. The diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder continues to raise controversy, and, there is also an increase in treatment options. In this 6-week double blind, placebo controlled-trial, we assessed the effects of zinc plus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first double blind and placebo controlled clinical trial assessing the adjunctive role of zinc in ADHD. Methods: Our subjects were 44 outpatient children (26 boys and 18 girls) between the ages of 5-11 (mean ± SD was 7.88 ± 1.67) who clearly met the DSM IV diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and they were randomized to methylphenidate 1 mg/kg/day + zinc sulfate 55 mg/ day (with approximately 15 mg zinc element) (group 1) and methylphenidate 1 mg/kg/day + placebo (sucrose 55 mg) (group 2) for a 6 week double blind clinical trial. The principal measure of the outcome was the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale. Patients were assessed by a child psychiatrist at baseline, 14, 28 and 42 days after the medication started. Results: The present study shows the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores improved with zinc sulfate over this 6-week, double blind and placebo controlled trial. The behavior of the two treatments was not homogeneous across the time. The difference between the two protocols was significant as indicated by the effect on the group, the between-subjects factor (F = 4.15, d.f. = 1, P = 0.04; F = 4.50, d.f. = 1, P = 0.04 respectively). The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant. Conclusions: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that zinc as a supplementary medication might be beneficial in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, further investigations and different doses of zinc are required to replicate these findings in children with ADHD.


Related Articles

  • The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Stimulant Drugs in Treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of Methodological Issues. Rossiter, Thomas // Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback;Jun2004, Vol. 29 Issue 2, p95 

    The paper examines major criticisms of AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) neurofeedback research using T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) as an exemplar and discusses relevant aspects of research methodology. J. Lohr, S. Meunier, L. Parker, and J. P. Kline (2001), D. A....

  • Shire reports encouraging results from Phase IIIb ADHD study.  // PharmaWatch: Biotechnology;Dec2009, Vol. 8 Issue 12, p8 

    The article provides an overview on the results of Shire's Phase IIIb study regarding the effectiveness of Daytrana in adolescents who are diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Great Britain. It states that Daytrana is the first and only patch for the treatment of...

  • Psychopharmacologic Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Ivanov, Iliyan // Psychiatric Annals;Jul2007, Vol. 37 Issue 7, p477 

    The article deals with the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents. The three sub-types of ADHD included predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, predominantly inattentive and combined. According to the author, one...

  • Reboxetine versus methylphenidate in treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Arabgol, Fariba; Panaghi, Leily; Hebrani, Paria // European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry;Jan2009, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p53 

    Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among children and adolescents. This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of reboxetine in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Thirty...

  • Pay attention.  // New Scientist;11/28/98, Vol. 160 Issue 2162, p3 

    Editorial. Discusses the massive surge in the use of Ritalin to treat children with attention deficit disorder and the sharply contrasting views on whether the drug is being prescribed too freely. Increase in the number of children and adults in the United States that are taking the drug since...

  • Hyperactivity. Vatz, Richard E.; Weinberg, Lee S. // Mothering;Spring95, Issue 74, pN92 

    Discusses the use of the drug Ritalin to control marginal behavioral problems of children in affluent areas in the United States. Indications of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Questions on the medication's possible addictive properties; Etiology of the disorder; Lack of...

  • RITALIN NATION. Leason, Katie // Community Care;12/4/2003, Issue 1501, p26 

    Deals with other treatment options for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aside from ritalin. Concern Peter Wilson, director of mental health charity YoungMinds with regard to hyperactive children; Effectiveness of ritalin in treating ADHD; Signs and symptoms of the...

  • ADHD treatment can bring benefits. Essex, Charles // New Zealand Doctor;10/6/2004, p25 

    Discusses the benefits of the treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Historical background and common misconceptions of the disease; Potential reasons for the development of ADHD in children; Capabilities and side effects of methylphenidate as treatment for the disease.

  • Behavior Drugs & Children: An Overview. Bailey, Ellen; Carson-Dewitt, Rosalyn // Points of View: Behavior Drugs & Children;3/1/2016, p1 

    The article presents an overview of the use of behavior drugs in treating children with behavior problems in the U.S. It is noted that based on statistics, suicide due to depression is the third leading cause of death among people aged 15 to 24 in spite of the use of antidepressants and...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics