C-type lectin-like domains in Fugu rubripes

Zelensky, Alex N.; Gready, Jill E.
January 2004
BMC Genomics;2004, Vol. 5, p1
Academic Journal
Background: Members of the C-type lectin domain (CTLD) superfamily are metazoan proteins functionally important in glycoprotein metabolism, mechanisms of multicellular integration and immunity. Three genome-level studies on human, C. elegans and D. melanogaster reported previously demonstrated almost complete divergence among invertebrate and mammalian families of CTLD-containing proteins (CTLDcps). Results: We have performed an analysis of CTLD family composition in Fugu rubripes using the draft genome sequence. The results show that all but two groups of CTLDcps identified in mammals are also found in fish, and that most of the groups have the same members as in mammals. We failed to detect representatives for CTLD groups V (NK cell receptors) and VII (lithostathine), while the DC-SIGN subgroup of group II is overrepresented in Fugu. Several new CTLD-containing genes, highly conserved between Fugu and human, were discovered using the Fugu genome sequence as a reference, including a CSPG family member and an SCP-domain-containing soluble protein. A distinct group of soluble dual-CTLD proteins has been identified, which may be the first reported CTLDcp group shared by invertebrates and vertebrates. We show that CTLDcp-encoding genes are selectively duplicated in Fugu, in a manner that suggests an ancient large-scale duplication event. We have verified 32 gene structures and predicted 63 new ones, and make our annotations available through a distributed annotation system (DAS) server http:// anz.anu.edu.au:8080/Fugu_rubripes/ and their sequences as additional files with this paper. Conclusions: The vertebrate CTLDcp family was essentially formed early in vertebrate evolution and is completely different from the invertebrate families. Comparison of fish and mammalian genomes revealed three groups of CTLDcps and several new members of the known groups, which are highly conserved between fish and mammals, but were not identified in the study using only mammalian genomes. Despite limitations of the draft sequence, the Fugu rubripes genome is a powerful instrument for gene discovery and vertebrate evolutionary analysis. The composition of the CTLDcp superfamily in fish and mammals suggests that large-scale duplication events played an important role in the evolution of vertebrates.


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