Quantization of the dipole moment and of the end charges in push-pull polymers

Kudin, Konstantin N.; Car, Roberto; Resta, Raffaele
November 2007
Journal of Chemical Physics;11/21/2007, Vol. 127 Issue 19, p194502
Academic Journal
A theorem for end-charge quantization in quasi-one-dimensional stereoregular chains is formulated and proved. It is a direct analog of the well-known theorem for surface charges in physics. The theorem states the following: (1) Regardless of the end groups, in stereoregular oligomers with a centrosymmetric bulk, the end charges can only be a multiple of 1/2 and the longitudinal dipole moment per monomer p can only be a multiple of 1/2 times the unit length a in the limit of long chains. (2) In oligomers with a noncentrosymmetric bulk, the end charges can assume any value set by the nature of the bulk. Nonetheless, by modifying the end groups, one can only change the end charge by an integer and the dipole moment p by an integer multiple of the unit length a. (3) When the entire bulk part of the system is modified, the end charges may change in an arbitrary way; however, if upon such a modification the system remains centrosymmetric, the end charges can only change by multiples of 1/2 as a direct consequence of (1). The above statements imply that—in all cases—the end charges are uniquely determined, modulo an integer, by a property of the bulk alone. The theorem’s origin is a robust topological phenomenon related to the Berry phase. The effects of the quantization are first demonstrated in toy LiF chains and then in a series of trans-polyacetylene oligomers with neutral and charge-transfer end groups.


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