Zienius, Dainius
September 2007
Veterinarija ir Zootechnika;2007, Vol. 39 Issue 61, p86
Academic Journal
The aim of this study was to review the EBLV epidemiology in Europe and provide the evolutionary history of these viruses. Rabies is still present in Europe and three Lyssavirus genotypes are endemic: genotype 1 or rabies virus (RABV), which infects terrestrial animals, and genotypes 5 and 6 or European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and type 2 (EBLV-2). Each of the EBLV types, according to the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes nucleotide and amino acid sequence phylogenetic analysis, has been subdivided into two variants - EBLV-1a/1b and EBLV-2a/2b. During the last 20 years more than 600 cases of EBLV infection have been reported throughout Europe, most recently in Scotland, Netherlands, Spain and Denmark. More than 95% of EBLV-1 were isolated from Eptesicus serotinus bats, whereas EBLV-2 appears to be associated with Myotis dasycname and Myotis daubentonii bats. EBLV-1 infection has also been reported in small number of terrestrial mammals, including five sheep in Denmark and a stone marten in Germany. Four cases of bat-associated rabies in humans have been reported and confirmed: two cases were infected with EBLV-1 and two - with EBLV-2. By combining a variety of data (taxonomic relationships, virus population dynamics, phylogeography) it's able to reveal some aspects of the evolutionary history of EBLV in Europe: chiropteran lyssaviruses existed long before carnivoran RABV with the host switching from chiropters to carnivores to 888 -1459 years ago; the current lineages of EBLV-1 arose some 500 to 750 years ago and possible have different patterns of geographical spread from North Africa with different points of introduction into Europe. So rabies in bats will never be eradicated because of the nature of the infection, unlike classical rabies (RABV, serotype 1) in other terrestrial mammals, which can be eradicated using oral rabies vaccination programme in many ‘rabies free’ countries. It is therefore something people must learn to live with.


Related Articles

  • Sequence analysis of NSP9 gene of 25 PRRSV strains from Guangdong province, subtropical southern China. Zhao, Mengmeng; Ning, Zhangyong; Wang, Heng; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Minze; Zhang, Guihong // Virus Genes;Feb2013, Vol. 46 Issue 1, p88 

    In order to evaluate the trend in the prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome on farms, 25 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains were collected from 2009 to 2012 from 11 districts in the Guangdong province. The complete gene sequences of NSP9...

  • Elimination of human rabies in a canine endemic province in Thailand: five-year programme. Kamoltham, T.; Singhsa, J.; Promsaranee, U.; Sonthon, P.; Mathean, P.; Thinyounyong, W. // Bulletin of the World Health Organization;2003, Vol. 81 Issue 5, p375 

    Abstract A five-year project to prevent human deaths from rabies in Phetchabun Province, Thailand involved increasing accessibility of post-exposure treatment with the Thai Red Cross intradermal (2-2-2-0-1-1) regimen for humans exposed to potentially and confirmed rabid animals; intensifying...

  • Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea. Yang Ree Kim // Infection & Chemotherapy;Sep2014, Vol. 46 Issue 3, p143 

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy...

  • Ovine reference materials and assays for prion genetic testing. Heaton, Michael P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Freking, Brad A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Clawson, Michael L.; Laegreid, William W. // BMC Veterinary Research;2010, Vol. 6, p23 

    Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with several variations in the peptide sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP). DNA-based tests for scoring PRNP codons are essential tools for eradicating scrapie and for evaluating rare alleles for increased resistance to...

  • The changing landscape of rabies epidemiology and control. Cleaveland, Sarah; Beyer, Hawthorne; Hampson, Katie; Haydon, Daniel; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meslin, Francois-Xavier; Morters, Michelle; Mtema, Zacharia; Sambo, Maganga; Townsend, Sunny // Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research;2014, Vol. 81 Issue 2, p1 

    Over the past 20 years, major progress has been made in our understanding of critical aspects of rabies epidemiology and control. This paper presents results of recent research, highlighting methodological advances that have been applied to burden of disease studies, rabies epidemiological...

  • Knowledge and practices of residents in two north Namibian towns with regard to rabies and pet care. Haimbodi, F.; Mavenyengwa, R.; Noden, B. H. // Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases;2014, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p141 

    Recent studies have highlighted the epidemiology of rabies in southern Africa and the unique nature of kudu rabies in Namibia. However, the serious effect on human populations in northern Namibia lacks focused attention. This study surveyed knowledge and awareness of rabies, including its...

  • Unintended Consequences and Artifacts. Reiss, Carol Shoshkes // DNA & Cell Biology;Nov2013, Vol. 32 Issue 11, p621 

    An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses two articles within the issue one on related to alteration in the structure and function of protein due to modification of protein sequence and other related to polymorphism in a cytokine gene.

  • Rabies in India. Menezes, Rozario // CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal;2/26/2008, Vol. 178 Issue 5, p564 

    The article offers information on rabies and other related developments in India. The author reports on the incidence of human rabies in the country, particularly the rate and common social status of Indians dying from this disease annually. She discusses how the country manages stray dogs using...

  • Rabies risk among travellers. Di Quinzio, Melanie; McCarthy, Anne // CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal;2/26/2008, Vol. 178 Issue 5, p567 

    The article offers travelers some important information about rabies. The authors discuss the risk of travelers to get rabies, particularly from dogs, and mention the countries with high human rabies incidence. They suggest ways on how rabies can be prevented and what travelers must do after...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics