Uyar, Mazlum
March 2007
Ekev Academic Review;Spring2007, Vol. 11 Issue 31, p1
Academic Journal
Iran is one of the few countries in the world to have had two major popular twentieth-century revolutions that succeeded in changing the form of government -the revolution of 1905-11 and that of 1978-9. While there is no doubt that the Islamic revolution in 1978-9 provided a thoroughgoing overthrow of the old political, social, and ideological order, the constitutional revolution of 1905-11 initiated the process of the erection of the power of the 'ulamâ, changing their status from that of the main leaders of society as representative of the people to that of their new level of being only one of the leaders in society. The Constitutional Revolution also changed the conceptions of authority and sovereignty alongside the changes in the power of the 'ulamâ. On the other hand, the Islamic Revolution is unique in the annals of modern history in that it brought to power not a new social group equipped with political parties and secular ideologies, but a traditional clergy with mosque pulpits and claiming the divine right to supervise all temporal authorities, even the country's highest elected representatives, thus not taking into consideration the sovereignty of the people.


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