Increasing Prevalence of HIV-1 Subtype A in Greece: Estimating Epidemic History and Origin

Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Sypsa, Vana; Paparizos, Vassilios; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Panos, Georgios; Chrysos, Georgios; Sambatakou, Helen; Karafoulidou, Anastasia; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Kordossis, Theodoros; Koratzanis, Georgios; Theodoridou, Maria; Daikos, Georgios L.; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Pybus, Oliver G.; Hatzakis, Angelos
October 2007
Journal of Infectious Diseases;10/15/2007, Vol. 196 Issue 8, p1167
Academic Journal
Background. In North America and Europe, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection has typically been dominated by subtype B transmission. More recently, however, non-B subtypes have been increasingly reported in Europe. Methods. We analyzed 1158 HIV-1-infected individuals in Greece by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of protease and partial reverse-transcriptase regions. Results. We found that the prevalence of non-B subtypes has increased over time and that this significant trend can be mainly attributed to subtype A, which eventually surpassed subtype B in prevalence in 2004 (42% and 33%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the year of HIV diagnosis was independently associated with subtype A infection (odds ratio for being infected with subtype A for a 10-year increase in the time period of diagnosis, 2.09 [95% confidence interval, 1.36-3.24]; P<.001). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subtype A epidemic in Greece is the result of a single founder event. The date of the most recent common ancestor of the subtype A in Greece was estimated to be 1977.9 (95% highest posterior density interval, 1973.7-1981.9). Conclusions. Subtype A circulates among the long-term residents of Greece. This is in contrast to the situation in most European countries, in which infection with non-B genetic forms is associated either with being an immigrant or heterosexual or with intravenous drug use.


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