A harmonic approach to global ocean tide analysis based on TOPEX/Poseidon satellite

Alireza Ardalan; Hassan Hashemi-Farahani
September 2007
Marine Geophysical Research;Sep2007, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p235
Academic Journal
Abstract  The constant and harmonic parts of the global ocean tide are modeled by up to nine major tidal constituents, namely, S2, M2, N2, K1, P1, O1, Mf, Mm, and Ssa. Our computations start with the Fourier sine and cosine series expansion for the tidal constituents, including the constant Mean Sea Level (MSL). Although the frequencies of the tidal constituents are considered known, the coefficients of the sine and cosine functions are assumed to be unknown. Subsequently, the coefficients of the sine and cosine functions, as well as the constant part of the Fourier expansion, were expanded into spherical harmonics up to degree and order n, where n corresponds to the number of linearly independent spherical harmonic base functions needed to model the tidal constituents, determined via independent columns of the Gram matrix. The unknown coefficients of the spherical harmonic expansions are computed using sea level observations within cycles #1–#350 of the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry over 11 years of its mission. A set of orthonormal base functions was generated for the marine areas covered by TOPEX/Poseidon observations from the spherical harmonics using a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process. These were used for modeling the dominant tidal constituents. The computed models based on orthonormal base functions for the nine tidal constituents and the constant part of the Fourier expansion, were tested numerically for their validity and accuracy, proving centimeter accuracy.


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