Randomized Trial of Inactivated and Live Polio Vaccine Schedules in Guatemalan Infants

Asturias, Edwin J.; Dueger, Erica L.; Omer, Saad B.; Melville, Arturo; Nates, Silvia V.; Laassri, Majid; Chumakov, Konstantin; Halsey, Neal A.
September 2007
Journal of Infectious Diseases;9/1/2007, Vol. 196 Issue 5, p692
Academic Journal
Background. The immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in developing countries is not well documented. This study compared the immune response to IPV with that to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in Guatemalan infants. Methods. This was an open-label, randomized comparison of IPV only, OPV only, or IPV followed by OPV in Guatemalan public health clinics. Serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies, and stool samples were tested for Sabin strain polioviruses. Results. Seropositivity rates 2 months after 2 doses of IPV were 98%-100% for polio types 1, 2, and 3 and were 97.1%, 99.3%, and 92.1% for OPV-only recipients (P<.001 for the response to type 3). One month after the third dose, 100% of IPV-only recipients had protective antibodies against all 3 types, compared with 99%, 100%, and 97% against polio types 1, 2, and 3 respectively, among recipients of OPV only. Infants who received IPV only had higher geometric mean titers than infants who received OPV only. Maternal antibodies lowered the final antibody responses to IPV but did not prevent the development of protective levels of antibody. Of 191 stool samples from infants who received IPV only, 5 (2.6%) were positive for poliovirus vaccine strains. Conclusions. IPV alone and IPV followed by OPV are safe and effective for Guatemalan infants.


Related Articles

  • Vaccines against intracellular infections requiring cellular immunity. Seder, Robert A.; Hill, Adrian V. S. // Nature;8/17/2000, Vol. 406 Issue 6797, p793 

    Examines the mechanisms by which long-lived cellular immune responses are generated and maintained in vivo. Discussion about acquired cellular immunity and cellular memory; Thresholds, time and place of immune protection; Approaches for vaccination, which induce cellular immunity to...

  • Potential Vaccine Strategies for the Management of Cryptococcal Disease.  // Journal of Invasive Fungal Infections;2011, Vol. 5 Issue 3, p65 

    The article discusses the progress and challenges in the development of potential vaccine to prevent cryptococcosis. It discusses the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) by T helper 1 (Th1)-type cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells as the protective host immune response against cryptococcosis. It...

  • TB vaccines: current status and future perspectives. Aagaard, Claus; Dietrich, Jes; Doherty, Mark; Andersen, Peter // Immunology & Cell Biology;May2009, Vol. 87 Issue 4, p279 

    Vaccines against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis need to induce strong cellular immune responses. Antigen discovery programs have exploited this and used proteome studies and T-cell recognition in PPD-positive individuals to select proteins and after testing for...

  • From vaccine practice to vaccine science: the contribution of human immunology to the prevention of infectious disease. Mortellaro, Alessandra; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola // Immunology & Cell Biology;Mar2011, Vol. 89 Issue 3, p332 

    Over the past 50 years, the practice of vaccination has reached the important goal of reducing many of the diseases that afflicted humanity in past centuries. A better understanding of immunological mechanisms underlying the induction of immune protection and the advent of new technology led to...

  • Adjuvants for Leishmania vaccines: From Models to Clinical Application. Raman, Vanitha S.; Reed, Steven G.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Fox, Christopher B.; Matlashewski, Greg // Frontiers in Immunology;May2012, Vol. 3, p1 

    Two million new cases of leishmaniasis occur every year, with the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presentation accounting for approximately two-thirds of all cases. Despite the high incidence rates and geographic expansion of the disease, CL remains a neglected tropical disease without effective...

  • T-Cell development: Thymocyte-selected CD4+ T cells. Bell, Elaine // Nature Reviews Immunology;Oct2007, Vol. 7 Issue 10, p748 

    The article presents a study on thymocyte-selected CD4+ T cells. It focuses on the comparison of cytokine production from T cells isolated from wild-type mice. This research revealed that thymic selection pathway influences the effector function of CD4+ T cells and suggests investigations to...

  • Stimulation and inhibition of immune responses: an intricate balancing act. Koretzky, Gary // Journal of Clinical Investigation;1/1/2002, Vol. 109 Issue 1, p7 

    Discusses the balance of signals implicated in T cell activation in line with the stimulation and inhibition of immune responses. Biochemical aspects of immunological balancing act; Ultrastructural organization of signaling in the immune cell; Functional modulation of immunological response.

  • Enhancement of Immunity by a DNA Melanoma Vaccine against TRP2 with CCL21 as an Adjuvant. Yamano, Tomoki; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Huang, Sharon; Hiramatsu, Suzanne H.; Hoon, Dave S. B. // Molecular Therapy;Jan2006, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p194 

    Tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP2) is a weak antigen expressed in murine and human melanomas. Induction of antibody (Ab) response and T-cell immunity toward TRP2 with DNA plasmid vaccines has not been efficient to date. Recent studies have suggested that a chemokine ligand for the CCR7 (CCL21)...

  • Adjuvants and delivery systems in veterinary vaccinology: current state and future developments. Heegaard, Peter; Dedieu, Laurence; Johnson, Nicholas; Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Mockey, Michael; Mutinelli, Franco; Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Vascellari, Marta; Sørensen, Nanna // Archives of Virology;Feb2011, Vol. 156 Issue 2, p183 

    Modern adjuvants should induce strong and balanced immune responses, and it is often desirable to induce specific types of immunity. As an example, efficient Th1-immunity-inducing adjuvants are highly in demand. Such adjuvants promote good cell-mediated immunity against subunit vaccines that...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics