Testicular microlithiasis: Is there an agreed protocol?

Shanmugasundaram, R.; Singh, J. Changra; Kekre, Nitin S.
July 2007
Indian Journal of Urology;Jul-Sep2007, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p234
Academic Journal
This review addresses the issues on etiopathogenesis of testicular microlithiasis (TM), associated clinical entities, evaluation and follow-up of patients with TM. A literature search of Medline/PubMed was carried out using the keywords 'testicular microlithiasis' and 'testicular calcifications' for published data in English language on TM from 1970 to 2006. TM is an uncommon entity among adult males, resulting from intratubular calcifications. The reported incidence of TM is highly variable. With the increasing frequency of ultrasound examination in scrotal and testicular conditions and with the advent of high frequency transducers, TM is increasingly being reported. TM is associated with many benign and malignant conditions of testes but the possible association of TM with testicular cancer has been a matter of concern. Though a few sporadic cases of testicular malignancies have been reported, it is believed that a conservative approach is warranted in the absence of high risk factors, in view of the low risks for invasive cancers. There is no uniform protocol for the evaluation and follow-up of the patients with TM. Those with high risk factors like contralateral testicular tumour, chromosomal anomalies, gonadal dysgenesis, cryptorchidism and definite ultrasound pattern of TM should be advised to have further evaluation. Incidentally detected asymptomatic TM during ultrasound examination does not warrant aggressive measures and it can be followed with self examination.


Related Articles

  • Testicular microlithiasis as a familial risk factor for testicular germ cell tumour. Coffey, J.; Huddart, R. A.; Elliott, F.; Sohaib, S. A.; Parker, E.; Dudakia, D.; Pugh, J. L.; Easton, D. F.; Bishop, D. T.; Stratton, M. R.; Rapley, E. A. // British Journal of Cancer;12/17/2007, Vol. 97 Issue 12, p1701 

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is characterised by small intratesticular calcifications, which can be visualised by ultrasound. Men with testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) have a higher frequency of TM than men without TGCT. To clarify the association between TGCT and TM and to investigate the...

  • A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Testicular Microlithiasis and Incidence of Testicular Cancer. Tao Wang; LuHao Liu; JinTai Luo; TaiSheng Liu; AnYang Wei // Urology Journal;Mar/Apr2015, Vol. 12 Issue 2, p2057 

    Purpose: There are many recent observational studies on testicular microlithiasis (TM) and risk of testicular cancer. Whether TM increases the risk of testicular cancer is still inconclusive. The objective of this updated meta-analysis was to synthesize evidence from clinical observational...

  • Modifiable risk factors for cancer. Stein, C.J.; Colditz, G.A. // British Journal of Cancer;1/26/2004, Vol. 90 Issue 2, p299 

    Over 6 million people around the world die from cancer each year. Modifiable risk factors have been linked to a wide range of malignancies, including cancers of the oropharynx, oesophagus, larynx, lung, kidney, bladder, pancreas, skin, stomach, ovary, breast, cervix, uterus, prostate, and colon....

  • Phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in mice and its effect on testicular tissue and sperm parameters; evidence for protective effect of royal Jelly versus vitamin C. Anbara, H.; Shahrooz, R.; Razi, M.; Malekinejad, H. // Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine;Jun2014 Supplement, Vol. 12, p110 

    Introduction: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) is used to prepare indoles and to form phenylhydrazines of natural mixtures of simple sugars. However, it is used to induce experimental anemia in animal models. On the other hand royal jelly is known as antioxidant compound. Therefore, here in present study...

  • Preventing venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with cancer: Improving compliance with clinical practice guidelines. Brown, Alexandra // American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy;3/15/2012, Vol. 69 Issue 6, p469 

    Purpose. The use of anticoagulants for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized medical and surgical oncology patients is discussed. Summary. Hospitalized patients are often at risk for developing VTE, and risk is increased in patients who have cancer. Moreover, the...

  • The long-term risks of adjuvant carboplatin treatment for stage I seminoma of the testis. T. Powles; D. Robinson; J. Shamash; H. Moller; N. Tranter; T. Oliver // Annals of Oncology;Mar2008, Vol. 19 Issue 3, p443 

    Background: The use of adjuvant carboplatin in the management of stage I seminoma of the testis has been limited by the lack of long-term data. In this study, we address this issue for the first time. Patients and methods: Data on 199 patients treated with single-agent carboplatin for stage I...

  • SIXTY SECONDS ON ... HRT. Hawkes, Nigel // BMJ: British Medical Journal;11/14/2015, Vol. 351 Issue 8033, ph6040 

    The article provides updates on issues related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) as of November 14, 2015 including a study in October 2015 at a fertility conference on the risk of HRT, a guidance on HRT to be published by the British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and the...

  • What is the quality of smoking cessation advice in guidelines of tobacco-related diseases? Bogdanovica, Ilze; Agrawal, Sanjay; Gregory, Benjamin; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo // Clinical Medicine;Dec2015, Vol. 15 Issue 6, p546 

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a range of diseases, and quitting smoking provides considerable benefits to health. It therefore follows that clinical guidelines on disease management, particularly for diseases caused by smoking, should include smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to...

  • Testicular Microlithiasis. Olayode, Adegboyega // Mayo Clinic Proceedings;Apr2014, Vol. 89 Issue 4, pe33 

    An image of testicles demonstrating bilateral microcalcifications of 27 year old male is presented.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics