Relationship of Adiponectin and Leptin to Body Fat, Fat Distribution and Insulin Sensitivity in African American Men and Women

Considine, Robert V.; Premkumar, Ahalya; Reynolds, James C.; Sebring, Nancy G.; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E.
June 2007
Diabetes;Jun2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 56, pA358
Academic Journal
Adiponectin and leptin are adipose hormones closely linked to body fat content, fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. In Caucasians the relationship of these hormones to fat and insulin sensitivity are well described; however, these relationships are less well understood in African Americans (AA). Our goal was to examine in nondiabetic AA the association of adiponectin and leptin with body fat content, fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Sixty-nine non-diabetic AA (37M/32W), age 33±1y, (mean±SEM, range 20-50), BMI 30.0±1.0 kg/m², (range 19.7-54.7) participated. Abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volumes were computed by the sum of serial sliced CT scans, total body fat by DXA and insulin resistance by HOMA. Men and women did not differ in BMI (31.0±1.2 vs 28.9±1.3 kg/m²), total body fat (28.7±2.5 vs 24.7±1.9 kg), or HOMA (1.80±0.23 vs 1.69±0.23). VAT was greater in men (1619±177 vs 1022±149 mm³, P=0.01) but SAT was not different by sex (4390±509 vs 5049±668 mm³). Women had higher adiponectin (15.8±1.2 vs 10.4±0.8 µg/ml; P=0.0004) and leptin (23.2±15.8 vs 9.2±7.2 ng/ml; P<0.0001). In simple regression in women serum adiponectin was negatively correlated with VAT (r=-0.55, P<0.01), and SAT (r=-0.35, P<0.05), but in men only with VAT (r=-0.41,P<0.05).Adiponectin did not correlate with total fat mass in either sex. In contrast leptin was positively correlated with VAT, SAT and total fat mass in both men (r=0.79, r=0.86, and r=0.81; P<0.001) and women (r=0.62, r=0.75 and r=0.82, P<0.001). Adiponectin was negatively correlated with HOMA in men (r=-0.38, P<0.05) and women (r=-0.44, P<0.05) but leptin was positively correlated with HOMA in both sexes (men: r=0.53, P<0.001; women: r=0.55, P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis was performed with adiponectin or leptin as the dependent variable and sex, HOMA, total fat mass, VAT and SAT as independent variables. Sex (P=0.04), HOMA (P=0.04) and VAT (P=0.002) were significant predictors of log adiponectin (adj R²=0:375, P<0.001). Sex (P <0.001), total fat mass (P=0.006) and VAT (P =0.003) were significant predictors of log leptin (adj R²=0.784, P<0.001). Overall, these findings suggest sex differences in AA in the relationship of adiponectin and leptin to body fat content/distribution and insulin sensitivity. Although VAT and insulin sensitivity are significant determinants of adiponectin, VAT and total body fat are the major determinants of leptin.


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