p53 independent induction of PUMA mediates intestinal apoptosis in response to ischaemia—reperfusion

Bin Wu; Wei Qiu; Peng Wang; Hui Yu; Tao Cheng; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Lin Zhang; Jian Yu
May 2007
Gut;May2007, Vol. 56 Issue 5, p645
Academic Journal
Background: The small intestine is highly sensitive to ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) induced injury which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a major mode of cell death occurring during I/R induced injury. However, the mechanisms by which I/R cause apoptosis in the small intestine are poorly understood, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a p53 downstream target and a member of the BH3-only group of Bcl-2 family proteins. It has been shown that PUMA plays an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli in different tissues through a mitochondrial pathway. Aims: The role of PUMA in I/R induced injury and apoptosis in the small intestine was investigated. The mechanisms by which PUMA is regulated in I/R induced intestinal apoptosis were also studied. Methods: Ischaemia was induced by superior mesenteric artery occlusion in the mouse small intestine. Induction of PUMA in response to ischaemia alone, or ischaemia followed by reperfusion (I/R), was examined. I/R induced intestinal apoptosis and injury were compared between PUMA knockout and wild-type mice. The mechanisms of I/R induced and PUMA mediated apoptosis were investigated through analysis of caspase activation, cytosolic release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and alterations of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak. To determine whether PUMA is induced by reactive oxygen species and/or reactive nitrogen species generated by I/R, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and N-nitro-ÊŸ-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were used to treat animals before I/R. To determine whether p53 is involved in regulating PUMA during I/R induced apoptosis, PUMA induction and apoptosis in response to I/R were examined in p53 knockout mice. Results: PUMA was markedly induced following I/R in the mucosa of the mouse small intestine. I/R induced intestinal apoptosis was significantly attenuated in PUMA knockout mice compared with that in wild-type mice. I/R induced caspase 3 activation, cytochrome c release, Bax mitochondrial translocation and Bak multimerisation were also inhibited in PUMA knockout mice. SOD or L-NAME significantly blunted I/R induced PUMA expression and apoptosis. Furthermore, I/R induced PUMA expression and apoptosis in the small intestine were not affected in the p53 knockout mice. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that PUMA is activated by oxidative stress in response to I/R to promote p53 independent apoptosis in the small intestine through the mitochondrial pathway. Inhibition of PUMA is potentially useful for protecting against I/R induced intestinal injury and apoptosis.


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