TITLE

Level-Dependent Coronal and Axial Moment-Rotation Corridors of Degeneration-Free Cervical Spines in Lateral Flexion

AUTHOR(S)
Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Wolfla, Christopher E.; Shender, Barry S.; Paskoff, Glenn
PUB. DATE
May 2007
SOURCE
Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume;May2007, Vol. 89-A Issue 5, p1066
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: Aging, trauma, or degeneration can affect intervertebral kinematics. While in vivo studies can determine motions, moments are not easily quantified. Previous in vitro studies on the cervical spine have largely used specimens from older individuals with varying levels of degeneration and have shown that moment-rotation responses under lateral bending do not vary significantly by spinal level. The objective of the present in vitro biomechanical study was, therefore, to determine the coronal and axial moment-rotation responses of degeneration-free, normal, intact human cadaveric cervicothoracic spinal columns under the lateral bending mode. Methods: Nine human cadaveric cervical columns from C2 to T1 were fixed at both ends. The donors had ranged from twenty-three to forty-four years old (mean, thirty-four years) at the time of death. Retroreflective targets were inserted into each vertebra to obtain rotational kinematics in the coronal and axial planes. The specimens were subjected to pure lateral bending moment with use of established techniques. The range-of-motion and neutral zone metrics for the coronal and axial rotation components were determined at each level of the spinal column and were evaluated statistically. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that the two metrics were level-dependent (p < 0.05). Coronal motions were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than axial motions. Moment-rotation responses were nonlinear for both coronal and axial rotation components under lateral bending moments. Each segmental curve for both rotation components was well represented by a logarithmic function (R² > 0.95). Conclusions: Range-of-motion metrics compared favorably with those of in vivo investigations. Coronal and axial motions of degeneration-free cervical spinal columns under lateral bending showed substantially different level-dependent responses. The presentation of moment-rotation corridors for both metrics forms a normative dataset for the degeneration-free cervical spines. Clinical Relevance: While clinical studies provide some information on spinal motions, laboratory-driven experimental biomechanical studies allow controlled load application, document motion magnitudes, and provide a critical dataset of moment-rotation responses. Because these data are derived from degeneration-free spines, validation efforts with use of this dataset will greatly improve model predictabilities while studying the effects of pathological processes, trauma, or instrumentation on spinal kinetics and, hence, stability.
ACCESSION #
25019653

 

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