TITLE

Genotype-Phenotype Based Surgical Concept of Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

AUTHOR(S)
Machens, Andreas; Dralle, Henning
PUB. DATE
May 2007
SOURCE
World Journal of Surgery;May2007, Vol. 31 Issue 5, p957
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Since DNA tests have enabled reliable identification of asymptomatic RET (rearranged during transfection) gene carriers, myriads of publications have appeared on genotype-phenotype relationships. A comprehensive appraisal of this body of evidence using evidence-based methodology is pending. This study was based on systematic evaluation of the literature using evidence-based criteria. (1) There is a distinct age-related progression of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in carriers of RET mutations (grade C). (2) Among the high-risk RET mutations, those in codon 634 cause higher penetrance rates of the multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A phenotype (MTC, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma) than mutations in codons 609, 611, 618, and 620, irrespective of the amino acid substituting for cysteine (grade C). (3) DNA-based screening is superior to calcitonin-based screening in asymptomatic RET carriers (grade C). (4) Using a worst-case scenario, i.e., considering the earliest finding of MTC in asymptomatic RET carriers, pre-emptive thyroidectomy should be performed before that time (grade C) to be truly prophylactic. Specifically, for carriers of highest-risk mutations (codon 918): within the first year of life; for carriers of high-risk mutations (codon 609, 611, 618, 620, 630, and 634): before the age of 5 years; and for carriers of least-high risk mutations (codon 768, 790, 791, 804, and 891): before the age of 5-10 years. Strict adherence to these grade C recommendations can result in undertreatment of the former (codon 634) and overtreatment of the latter. These genotype-phenotype correlations provide a solid foundation on which to base surgical concepts, leaving little room for randomized controlled clinical trials.
ACCESSION #
24976644

 

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