Relationship between plasma selenium concentrations and lower genital tract levels of HIV-1 RNA and interleukin type 1β

Kupka, R.; Msamanga, G. I.; Xu, C.; Anderson, D.; Hunter, D.; Fawzi, W. W.
April 2007
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Apr2007, Vol. 61 Issue 4, p542
Academic Journal
Objective:To examine the relationship between selenium nutritional status and intermediates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transmission.Design:Prospective cohort study.Setting:A study clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Subjects:A total of 340 HIV-1-infected pregnant women with gestational ages 12–27 weeks.Methods:Women's plasma selenium concentrations were determined at enrollment and modeled as tertiles (tertile 1: <114 μg/l (reference); tertile 2: 114–131 μg/l; tertile 3: >131 μg/l). Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were obtained at 36 weeks of gestation to determine HIV-1 RNA and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. In subgroup analyses, 123 women with genital tract infections at enrollment were excluded.Results:Plasma selenium concentrations 114 μg/l were related to increased risk of lower-genital shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Excluding women with genital tract infections strengthened the associations (relative risk (RR) tertile 2: 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10, 1.92; RR tertile 3: 1.39, 95% CI=1.05, 1.84). There was evidence for an association between plasma selenium concentrations 114 μg/l and increased HIV-1 RNA levels among the entire cohort and after excluding women with genital tract infections. There was no association between plasma selenium and IL-1β concentrations.Conclusions:High selenium status may lead to increased risk of genital HIV-1 shedding, but data from other studies indicate that the evidence is mixed. Results from ongoing selenium trials are awaited to clarify the impact of selenium on HIV-1-related transmission endpoints.Sponsorship:National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD R01 32257) and the Fogarty International Center (NIH D43 TW00004).European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2007) 61, 542–547. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602567; published online 6 December 2006


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