TITLE

Treatment of Bleeding Pseudoaneurysms in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

AUTHOR(S)
Udd, Marianne; Leppäniemi, Ari K.; Bidel, Siamak; Keto, Pekka; Roth, Wolf-Dieter; Haapiainen, Reijo K.
PUB. DATE
March 2007
SOURCE
World Journal of Surgery;Mar2007, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p504
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
In patients with chronic pancreatitis, an actively bleeding pseudoaneurysm can be life-threatening. Angioembolization is an attractive alternative to often complex operative management, and its feasibility was assessed in a retrospective analysis. During 1993–2005, 33 patients (27 males, median age 51 years) with bleeding pancreatic pseudoaneurysms underwent urgent angiographic evaluation followed by angioembolization if possible. Angioembolization was performed in 23 patients, whereas 10 patients required hemostatic surgery, including 6 distal pancreatectomies and 3 vessel ligations. Between 1993 and 2005 33 out of 745 patients (4.4%) admitted for chronic pancreatitis had bleeding pancreatic pseudoaneurysms. The proportion of bleeders out of the total number of hospital admissions for chronic pancreatitis was 33 out of 1,892 (1.7%). The overall success rate of angioembolization was 22 out of 33 (67%) including 3 patients requiring re-embolization for recurrent bleeding. The success rate was 16 out of 20 (80%) when the pseudocyst was in the head of the pancreas, and only 50% when the splenic artery was the source of bleeding. Four of the 5 cases with free bleeding into the peritoneal cavity required operative intervention. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 out of 33 (6%) and 7 out of 33 (21%) respectively, with no significant differences between embolized and operated patients. Angioembolization was associated with a significantly lower need for total blood transfusions and length of hospital stay. During the years 2000–2005, the overall success rate of angioembolization was 95%. All hemodynamically stable patients with chronic pancreatitis and bleeding pseudoaneurysms should undergo prompt initial angiographic evaluation and embolization if possible. Repeated angioembolization is feasible in patients with recurrent bleeding, whether initially embolized or operated. Patients with unsuccessful embolization should undergo emergency hemostatic surgery with ligation of the bleeding vessel in the head of the pancreas and distal resection in patients bleeding from the splenic artery or its branch. The combination of angioembolization and later endoscopic drainage of the pseudocyst via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is effective in the majority of the cases of pseudoaneurysms in chronic pancreatitis.
ACCESSION #
24240882

 

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