Estimating Health Care-Associated Infections and Deaths in U.S. Hospitals, 2002

Klevens, R. Monina; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Richards Jr., Chesley L.; Horan, Teresa C.; Gaynes, Robert P.; Pollock, Daniel A.; Cardo, Denise M.
March 2007
Public Health Reports;Mar/Apr2007, Vol. 122 Issue 2, p160
Academic Journal
Objective. The purpose of this study was to provide a national estimate of the number of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and deaths in United States hospitals. Methods. No single source of nationally representative data on HAIs is currently available. The authors used a multi-step approach and three data sources. The main source of data was the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system, data from 1990-2002, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (for 2002) and the American Hospital Association Survey (for 2000) were used to supplement NNIS data. The percentage of patients with an HAI whose death was determined to be caused or associated with the HAI from NNIS data was used to estimate the number of deaths. Results. In 2002, the estimated number of HAIs in U.S. hospitals, adjusted to include federal facilities, was approximately 1.7 million: 33,269 HAIs among newborns in high-risk nurseries, 19,059 among newborns in well-baby nurseries, 417,946 among adults and children in ICUs, and 1,266,851 among adults and children outside of ICUs. The estimated deaths associated with HAIs in U.S. hospitals were 98,987: of these, 35,967 were for pneumonia, 30,665 for bloodstream infections, 13,088 for urinary tract infections, 8,205 for surgical site infections, and 11,062 for infections of other sites. Conclusion. HAIs in hospitals are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The method described for estimating the number of HAIs makes the best use of existing data at the national level.


Related Articles

  • Device-associated infections at a level-1 trauma centre of a developing Nation: Impact of automated surveillance, training and feedbacks. Mathur, P.; Tak, V.; Gunjiyal, J.; Nair, S. A.; Lalwani, S.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, B.; Sinha, S.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, D.; Misra, M. C. // Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology;Jan2015, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p51 

    Purpose: Device-associated infections constitute the majority of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in ICUs. Trauma patients are predisposed to acquire such infections due to various trauma-related factors. The prevalence of HAIs is underreported from developing nations due to a lack of...

  • Nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU.  // People's Medical Society Newsletter;Jun96, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p5 

    Reports on a study which appeared in the March 20, 1996 issue of the `Journal of American Medical Association,' showing that nosocomial pneumonia independently contributed to the deaths of ICU patients. Incidence of higher death rates of ICU patients who develop nosocomial pneumonia; Factors...

  • Incidences of nosocomial infection in Uruguayan adult intensive care unit 2010. Guerra, S. E.; Albornoz, H.; Rosa, R.; Godino, M.; Camou, T.; Galiana, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, G.; Rehermann, G.; Bagnulo, H. // BMC Proceedings;Jan2011 Supplement 6, Vol. 5, pP77 

    An abstract of the article "Incidences of nosocomial infection in Uruguayan adult intensive care unit 2010," by H. Albornoz, R. Rosa and M. Godino and colleagues, is presented.

  • Epidemiología de las infecciones intrahospitalarias por el uso de catéteres venosos centrales. Sandoval, Marisol; Guevara, Armando; Torres, Karla; Viloria, Víctor // Revista Kasmera;ene-jun2013, Vol. 41 Issue 1, p7 

    Nosocomial infections due to the use of central venous catheters are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries; the most frequent is nosocomial bacteremia. Objective: To determine the frequency of nosocomial infections related to use of central venous...

  • Nosocomial infections in the Intesive Care Unit, Univerisity Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Belgrade, Serbia. Milošević, Ivana; Korać, Miloš; Stevanović, Goran; Jevtović, Djordje; Milošević, Branko; Jovanović, Milica; Dulović, Olga; Pavlović, Milorad // Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journ;Feb2014, Vol. 71 Issue 2, p131 

    Bacground/Aim. Nosocomial infections (NIs) are an important cause of morbidity, mortality and prolonged hospitalizations. Fifty percent of NIs have been reported in Intensive Care Units. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and type of NIs among critically ill patients treated in...

  • Utilization of fluconazole in an intensive care unit at a university hospital in Brazil. Salci, Tânia; Gimenes, Marina; Santos, Carlos; Svidzinski, Terezinha; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana // International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy;Apr2013, Vol. 35 Issue 2, p176 

    Background Fungi have been developing resistance and merit greater attention because these microorganisms are among the major causes of hospital infection. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize the pattern of fluconazole use in an adult intensive care unit. Setting The...

  • Standard vs Enriched High Protein Enteral Nutrition in the ICU. van Zanten, Arthur R. H.; Hofman, Zandrie // JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association;12/3/2014, Vol. 312 Issue 21, p2288 

    A response is presented from the authors of the article "High-Protein Enteral Nutrition Enriched With Immune-Modulating Nutrients vs Standard High-Protein Enteral Nutrition and Nosocomial Infections in the ICU: A Randomized Clinical Trial" in the August 6, 2014 issue.

  • Meropenem: A Review of its Use in Patients in Intensive Care. Hurst, M.; Lamb, H.M. // Drugs;Mar2000, Vol. 59 Issue 3, p653 

    Meropenem is a carbapenem antibacterial agent that has antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative, Gram-positive and anaerobic micro-organisms. In vitro studies involving isolates from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) indicate that meropenem is more active against most Gram-negative...

  • Why candidemia occurs early: a comment on 'incidence, characteristics and outcome of ICU-acquired candidemia in India'. Kapoor, Garima; Saigal, Saurabh; Saigal, Karnika // Intensive Care Medicine;Feb2015, Vol. 41 Issue 2, p377 

    A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Incidence, characteristics and outcome of intensive care unit-acquired candidemia in India," by A. Chakrabarti and his colleagues, which appeared in a 2014 issue of the journal "Intensive Care Medicine."


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics