Characterization of novel missense mutations in CYP21 causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Robins, Tiina; Bellanne-Chantelot, Christine; Barbaro, Michela; Cabrol, Sylvie; Wedell, Anna; Lajic, Svetlana
March 2007
Journal of Molecular Medicine;Mar2007, Vol. 85 Issue 3, p243
Academic Journal
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of steroid metabolism, with an incidence of 1/10,000 in the general Caucasian population. Although most patients carry a deletion of the CYP21 gene or any of nine pseudogene-derived point mutations, the number of reported rare mutations continues to increase, and consist today of more than 80 different point mutations. In this study, we report the characterization of four additional missense mutations in CYP21. Two of these, L166P and A391T, are novel missense mutations, whereas the R479L and R483Q mutations have been detected previously. Functional assays of mutagenized CYP21 were performed in transiently transfected mammalian cells in vitro, and enzymatic ability of substrate conversion of the two natural substrates of CYP21—17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone—was determined. All mutants displayed reduced in vitro enzyme activities compared with wild type, but to different extents, corresponding to clinical phenotypes that span the whole spectrum of disease severity. Functional studies are important to further establish the relationships between genotype and clinical phenotype as well as in vitro CYP21 activity in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This has relevance for diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counseling for affected families.


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