Where Do Ex-Offenders Find Jobs? An Industrial Profile of the Employers of Ex-Offenders in Virginia

Lichtenberger, Eric
December 2006
Journal of Correctional Education;Dec2006, Vol. 57 Issue 4, p297
Academic Journal
Based on an examination of the earnings records of ex-offenders released from Virginia correctional institutions from fiscal year 1999 to 2003, this article provides an industrial profile testing the presumption that most ex-offenders are only able to find employment in low-level occupations, with low rates of job retention, and limited customer contact. Data related to both ex-offenders and their respective employers were categorized using the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) and as a result, overall employment full-time employment and earnings patterns were identified for each industry. When available, data regarding the entire workforce were used for comparison purposes. The information provided in this article could be used by transition coordinators in job placement activities. Furthermore, correctional education administrators could use this information for the following purposes: 1) allocating resources to the vocational areas where ex-offenders are more likely to find employment, 2) cultivating relationships with employers most likely to hire ex-offenders, and 3) influencing major employers who do not have histories of hiring ex-offenders to change their human resource practices.


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