Activity of newer fluoroquinolones against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from ocular infections: an in vitro comparison

Duggirala, Aparna; Joseph, Joveeta; Sharma, Savitri; Nutheti, Rishita; Garg, Prashant; Das, Taraprasad
January 2007
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology;Jan2007, Vol. 55 Issue 1, p15
Academic Journal
journal article
Background: To determine the antibacterial activity of newer fluoroquinolones and compare their activity between ciprofloxacin-susceptible and resistant bacterial isolates from patients with keratitis and endophthalmitis.Materials and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin was determined for 123 bacterial isolates, using E test. Among the 123 isolates, 68 were gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Bacillus spp.) and 55 were gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The bacterial isolates were divided into three groups: susceptible/intermediate/resistant to ciprofloxacin. The MIC values for various fluoroquinolones were compared between the three groups and between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Results: For gram-positive isolates, median MICs of fourth generation fluoroquinolones were lower than second generation. The median MIC was lowest for gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin (0.094 mg/ml) in ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates of gram-positive bacteria. For ciprofloxacin-susceptible gram-negative bacteria, the median MIC of ciprofloxacin (0.19 mg/ml) was significantly lower than ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin (1.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 2 mg/ml respectively). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of gram-positive bacteria showed higher MIC of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin though they remained susceptible to them. None of the fluoroquinolones were effective against ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Overall, for gram-positive bacteria, median MICs of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were below ciprofloxacin, the MIC of gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin was equal for gram-positive bacteria.Conclusions: Levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin are statistically more effective against gram-positive bacteria, the latter two being equally effective. Ciprofloxacin remains the most effective fluoroquinolone against gram-negative bacteria.


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