Optimization of DNA-tagged liposomes for use in microtiter plate analyses

Edwards, Katie A.; Baeumner, Antje J.
December 2006
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Dec2006, Vol. 386 Issue 6, p1613
Academic Journal
Dye-encapsulating unilamellar DNA oligonucleotide-tagged liposomes were prepared and characterized for use as signal-enhancing reagents in a microtiter plate sandwich-hybridization analyses of single-stranded RNA or DNA sequences. The liposomes were synthesized using the reversed-phase evaporation method and tagged with DNA oligonucleotides by adding cholesteryl-modified DNA reporter probes to the initial lipid mixture. Liposomes were prepared using probe coverages of 0.0013–0.103 mol% of the total lipid input, several hydrophobic and poly(ethylene glycol)-based spacers between the cholesteryl anchor and the probe, and liposome diameters ranging from 200 nm to 335 nm. Their signal enhancement functionality was compared by using them in microtiter plate sandwich-hybridization assays for the detection of single-stranded DNA sequences. In these assays, an optimal reporter probe concentration of 0.103 mol%, a liposome diameter of 274 nm, and a phospholipid concentration of 0.3 mM were found. The length between the cholesteryl anchor and the probe was optimal when a spacer composed of TEG+(CH2O)3 was used. Under optimal conditions, a detection limit of 0.5 nM for a truncated synthetic DNA sequence was found with a coefficient of variation of 4.4%. A 500-fold lower limit of detection using fluorescence was found using lysed dye-encapsulating liposomes versus a single fluorescein-labeled probe. Finally, when this method was applied to the detection of atxA RNA extracted from E.coli SG12036-pIu121 and amplified using NASBA, a minimum extracted concentration of RNA of 1.1×10−7 μg/μL was found.


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