Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healty normolipidemic subjects

Wolfe, Bernard M.J.; Piche, Leonard A.
August 1999
Clinical & Investigative Medicine;Aug99, Vol. 22 Issue 4, p140
Academic Journal
Objective: To determine the effect on plasma lipid profiles of replacement of dietary carbohydrate by low-fat, high-protein foods. Design: Cross-over randomized controlled trial. Participants: Ten healthy, normolipidemic subjects (8 women and 2 men). Interventions: Subjects were randomly allocated to either a low-protein (12%) or high-protein (22%) weight-maintaining diet for 4 weeks and then switched to the alternate diet for 4 more weeks. The first 2 weeks of each diet served as an adjustment/washout period. Fat was maintained at 35% of energy, mean cholesterol intake at 230 mg per day and mean fibre intake at 24 g per day. Compliance was promoted by the use of written dietary protocols based on the food preferences of the subjects and weekly dietary consultation as required. Outcome measures: Mean plasma levels of total, very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density-lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and of total and very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL)triglycerides. Satiety levels were self-rated on a 10-point scale. Results: Consumption of the high- versus the low-protein diet resulted in significant reductions in mean plasma levels of total cholesterol (3.8 v. 4.1 mmol/L, p < 0.05), VLDL cholesterol (0.20 v. 0.26 mmol/L, p < 0.02), LDL cholesterol (2.4 v. 2.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05), total triglycerides (0.69 v. 0.95 mmol/L, p < 0.005) and VLDL triglycerides (0.35 v. 0.57 mmol/L, p < 0.001), as well as in the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (3.1 v. 3.5, p < 0.01). A trend towards an increase in HDL cholesterol (1.26 v. 1.21 mmol/L, p = 0.30) was observed but was not statistically significant. Satiety levels tended to be higher among those eating the high-protein diet (6.1 v. 5.4, p = 0.073). Conclusions: Moderate replacement of dietary carbohydrate with low-fat, high-protein foods in a diet containing a conventional level of fat significantly improved plasma lipoprotein cardiovascular risk profiles in healthy normo...


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