Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg
July 2005
Dose-Response;2005, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p443
Academic Journal
Current guidelines for cancer risk assessment emphasize a toxicant's "mode of action", rather than its empirically derived dose-response relationship, for determining whether linear low-dose extrapolation is appropriate. Thus, for reasons of policy, demonstration of hormesis is generally insufficient to justify a non-linear approach, although it may provide important insights into the actions of toxicants. We evaluated dose-response characteristics of four carcinogens reported to have hormetic dose-response curves: cadmium chloride; ionizing radiation; PAHs; and, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. For each, the study that documented hormesis in one organ also provided evidence of non-hormetic dose-responses in other organs or non-hormetic responses for seemingly similar carcinogens in the same species and organs. Such inconsistency suggests toxicologic reasons that the finding of hormesis alone is not sufficient to justify use of non-linear low-dose extrapolations. Moreover, available data in those examples are not sufficient to know whether hormesis is a property of the toxicants, the target organ, or the exposed species. From the perspectives of cancer risk assessment, the greatest informational value of hormesis may be that it provokes mechanistic studies intended to explain why hormesis occurs.


Related Articles

  • Some implications for quantitative risk assessment if hormesis exists. Sielken Jr, R.L.; Stevenson, D.E. // Human & Experimental Toxicology;1998, Vol. 17 Issue 5, p259 

    The existence of hormesis should impact quantitative risk assessment in at least seven fundamental ways. (1) The dose-reponse models for bioassay and epidemiological data should have greater flexibility to fit the observed shape of the dose-response data and no longer be forced to always be...

  • Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis. Calabrese, E.J.; Baldwin, L.A. // Human & Experimental Toxicology;Jan2000, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p2 

    Despite the long history of hormesis-related experimental research no systematic effort to describe its early history has been undertaken. The present paper attempts to reconstruct and assess the early history of such research and to evaluate how advances in related scientific fields affected...

  • Hormesis and Its Place in Nonmonotonic Dose-Response Relationships: Some Scientific Reality Checks. Mushak, Paul // Environmental Health Perspectives;Apr2007, Vol. 115 Issue 4, p500 

    OBJECTIVE: This analysis is a critical assessment of current hormesis literature. I discuss definitions, characterization, generalizability, mechanisms, absence of empirical data specific for hormesis hypothesis testing, and arguments that hormesis be the "default assumption" in risk assessment....

  • Changing the Risk Paradigms can be Good for Our Health: J-Shaped, Linear and Threshold Dose-Response Models. Ricci, P. F.; Straja, S. R.; Cox, A. L. // Dose-Response;2012, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p177 

    Both the linear (at low doses)-no-threshold (LNT) and the threshold models (S-shapes) dose-response lead to no benefit from low exposure. We propose three new models that allow and include, but do not require - unlike LNT and S-shaped models - this strong assumption. We also provide the means to...

  • The role of hormesis in ecotoxicology and ecological risk assessment. Calabrese, E.J. // Human & Experimental Toxicology;Oct2001, Vol. 20 Issue 10, p497 

    Comments on hormesis, a dose-response phenomenon. Emergence of the role of hormesis in the area of ecotoxicology and ecological risk assessment; Information on a paper on hormesis by Peter Chapman.

  • Dose response biology: The case of resveratrol. Calabrese, Edward J; Mattson, Mark P; Calabrese, Vittorio // Human & Experimental Toxicology;12/01/2010, Vol. 29 Issue 12, p1034 

    Resveratrol often displays hormesis-like biphasic dose responses. This occurs in a broad range of biological models and for numerous endpoints of biomedical interest and public health concern. Recognition of the widespread occurrence of the hormetic nature of many of the responses of resveratrol...

  • Hormesis on life-history traits: is there such thing as a free lunch? Jager, Tjalling; Barsi, Alpar; Ducrot, Virginie // Ecotoxicology;Mar2013, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p263 

    The term 'hormesis' is used to describe dose-response relationships where the response is reversed between low and high doses of a stressor (generally, stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high ones). A mechanistic explanation is needed to interpret the relevance of such responses, but...

  • THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF BIOMARKERS IN HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND TOXICITY. Singh, S. K.; Kumar, N.; Panicker, A.; Meshram, B. // Pharma Science Monitor;Apr2013, Vol. 4 Issue 2, p3796 

    The term "biomarker" is used in a broad sense to include almost any measurement reflecting an interaction between a biological system and an environmental agent, which may be chemical, physical or biological. Biomarkers are substances found in abnormal amount in body fluids or tissue, and...

  • CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT: PRESENT AND FUTURE. Szymczak, Wieslaw; Szadkowska-StaŃczyk, Irena // International Journal of Occupational Medicine & Environmental H;Jul2005, Vol. 18 Issue 3, p207 

    Risk assessment is a process based on available scientific information about properties of a given agent, and its effect on biological processes to evaluate potential adverse consequences of exposure to that particular agent. Occupational cancer risk assessment might be considered as a more...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics