Cohen, Bernard L.
July 2005
Dose-Response;2005, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p369
Academic Journal
A tightly reasoned justification is presented for the procedures used in our test of the linear-no threshold theory of radiation carcinogenesis by comparing lung cancer rates with average radon exposure in U.S. counties. A key point is its dependence on ecological variables rather than on characteristics of individuals and the principal problems involve treatment of potential confounding factors (CF). The method of stratification is introduced and shown to be preferable to multiple regression for evaluating effects of confounding. Utilizing numerous available CF reduces the problem of representing a complex confounding relationship by the average value of a single CF. The requirements on a CF for affecting the results are quantified in terms of its correlations with lung cancer rates and radon levels and it is shown that the existence of an unknown confounder satisfying these requirements is highly implausible. Effects of combinations of confounding factors are treated and shown not to be important. The problem of confounding factors on the level of individuals is resolved. Consideration of plausibility of correlations is used in several applications, including treatments of uncertainty in smoking prevalence, within county differences in radon exposure between smokers and non-smokers, variations in intensity of smoking, differences between measured radon levels and actual exposures, etc. Examples are presented for all applications. The differences between our study and case-control studies, and the advantages of each for testing the linear-no threshold theory, are discussed.


Related Articles

  • Residential Radon Gas Exposure and Lung Cancer. Field, R. William; Steck, Daniel J.; Smith, Brian J.; Brus, Christine P.; Fisher, Eileen L.; Neuberger, John S.; Platz, Charles E.; Robinson, Robert A.; Woolson, Robert F.; Lynch, Charles F. // American Journal of Epidemiology;2000, Vol. 151 Issue 11, p1091 

    Exposure to high concentrations of radon progeny (radon) produces lung cancer in both underground miners and experimentally exposed laboratory animals. To determine the risk posed by residential radon exposure, the authors performed a population-based, case-control epidemiologic study in Iowa...

  • Gemcitabine, Ifosfamide and Navelbine (GIN): activity and safety of a non-platinum-based triplet in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Baldini, E; Ardizzoni, A; Prochilo, T; Cafferata, M A; Boni, L; Tibaldi, C; Neumaier, C; Conte, P F; Rosso, R // British Journal of Cancer;11/15/2001, Vol. 85 Issue 10, p1452 

    To evaluate activity and toxicity of a non platinum-based triplet including Gemcitabine, Ifosfamide and Navelbine (GIN) in advanced NSCLC. Stage IIIB/IV NSCLC patients with WHO PS < 2 and bidimensionally measurable disease entered the study. Gemcitabine 1000 mg/sqm day 1 and 1000-800 mg/sqm day...

  • Modeling lung cancer incidence in rats following exposure to radon progeny. Hofmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D. J.; Fakir, H.; Monchaux, G. // Radiation Protection Dosimetry;Dec2006, Vol. 122 Issue 1-4, p345 

    Lung cancer incidence in Sprague–Dawley rats was simulated by a biologically based carcinogenesis model, which is formulated mathematically in terms of a stochastic state-vector model. Doses to the sensitive target cells in the bronchial epithelium of the rat lung were calculated by a...

  • Dose-Response Thresholds for Progressive Diseases. Cox, Louis Anthony (Tony) // Dose-Response;2012, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p233 

    Many diseases, including cancers, heart diseases, and lung diseases, can usefully be viewed as arising from disruption of feedback control systems that normally maintain homeostasis of tissues and cell populations. Excessive exposure can destabilize feedback control loops, leading to sustained...

  • Phase I/II study of weekly docetaxel dose escalation in combination with fixed weekly cisplatin and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Matsui, Kaoru; Fukuoka, Masahiro // Cancer Chemotherapy & Pharmacology;Sep2006, Vol. 58 Issue 3, p285 

    Purpose: We conducted a phase I study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) of weekly docetaxel and cisplatin (DOC/CDDP) with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) in patients with unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials...

  • Biology Based Lung Cancer Model for Chronic Low Radon Exposures. Truţă-Popa, Lucia-Adina; Hofmann, Werner; Fakir, Hatim; Cosma, Constantin // AIP Conference Proceedings;8/7/2008, Vol. 1034 Issue 1, p78 

    Low dose effects of alpha particles at the tissue level are characterized by the interaction of single alpha particles, affecting only a small fraction of the cells within that tissue. Alpha particle intersections of bronchial target cells during a given exposure period were simulated by an...

  • Dose and Time Dependence of Targeted and Untargeted Effects after Very Low Doses of α-Particle Irradiation of Human Lung Cancer Cells. Belchior, A.; Gil, O. Monteiro; Almeida, P.; Vaz, P. // Dose-Response;2013, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p431 

    Understanding the effects to human health resulting from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation is a persisting challenge. No one questions the deleterious consequences for humans following exposure to high radiation doses; however, in the low dose range, the complex and to some extent...

  • Body mass index and risk of lung cancer: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Duan, Peng; Quan, Chao; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Meng; Yu, Tingting; Kourouma, Ansoumane; Yang, Kedi; Hu, Chunhui; Yi, Xianfu // Scientific Reports;11/20/2015, p16938 

    Questions remain about the significance of the dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer (LC) risk. Pertinent studies were identified through a search in EMBASE and PUBMED from July 2014 until March 2015. The summary relative risk (SRR) and confidence interval (CI)...

  • Comparison of exposure assessment methods in a lung cancer case-control study: performance of a lifelong task-based questionnaire for asbestos and PAHs. Bourgkard, Eve; Wild, Pascal; Gonzalez, Maria; Févotte, Joelle; Penven, Emmanuelle; Paris, Christophe // Occupational & Environmental Medicine;Dec2013, Vol. 70 Issue 12, p884 

    Objective To describe the performance of a lifelong task-based questionnaire (TBQ) in estimating exposures compared with other approaches in the context of a case-control study. Methods A sample of 93 subjects was randomly selected from a lung cancer case-control study corresponding to 497 jobs....


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics