Does Obesity Predict Functional Outcome in the Dysvascular Amputee?

Kalbaugh, Corey A.; Taylor, Spence M.; Kalbaugh, Brooke A.; Halliday, Matthew; Daniel, Grace; Cass, Anna L.; Blackhurst, Dawn W.; Cull, David L.; Langan III, Eugene M.; Carsten III, Christopher G.; York, John W.; Snyder, Bruce A.; Youkey, Jerry R.
August 2006
American Surgeon;Aug2006, Vol. 72 Issue 8, p707
Academic Journal
Limited information is available concerning the effects of obesity on the functional outcomes of patients requiring major lower limb amputation because of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive ability of body mass index (BMI) to determine functional outcome in the dysvascular amputee. To do this, 434 consecutive patients (mean age, 65.8 ± 13.3, 59% male, 71.4% diabetic) undergoing major limb amputation (225 below-knee amputation, 27 through-knee amputation, 132 above-knee amputation, and 50 bilateral) as a complication of PAD from January 1998 through May 2004 were analyzed according to preoperative BMI. BMI was classified according to the four-group Center for Disease Control system: underweight, 0 to 18.4 kg/m²; normal, 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m²; overweight, 25 to 29.9 kg/m²; and obese, ≥30 kg/m². Outcome parameters measured included prosthetic usage, maintenance of ambulation, survival, and maintenance of independent living status. The χ² test for association was used to examine prosthesis wear. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to assess maintenance of ambulation, survival, and maintenance of independent living status. Multivariate analysis using the multiple logistic regression model and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to predict variables independently associated with prosthetic use and ambulation, survival, and independence, respectively. Overall prosthetic usage and 36-month ambulation, survival, and independent living status for the entire cohort was 48.6 per cent, 42.8 per cent, 48.1 per cent, 72.3 per cent, and for patients with normal BMI was 41.5 per cent, 37.4 per cent, 45.6 per cent, and 69.5 per cent, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in outcomes for overweight patients (59.2%, 50.7%, 52.5%, and 75%) or obese patients (51.8%, 46.2%, 49.7%, and 75%) when compared with normal patients. Although there were significantly poorer outcomes for underweight patients for the parameters of prosthetic usage when compared with the remaining cohort (25%, P = 0.001) and maintenance of ambulation when compared with overweight patients (20.8%, P = 0.026), multivariate analysis adjusting for medical comorbidities and level of amputation showed that BMI was not a significant independent predictor of failure for any outcome parameter measured. In conclusion, BMI failed to correlate with functional outcome and, specifically, obesity did not predict a poorer prognosis.


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