TITLE

Cardiopulmonary bypass and renal injury

AUTHOR(S)
Abu-Omar, Yasir; Ratnatunga, Chandana
PUB. DATE
July 2006
SOURCE
Perfusion;Jul2006, Vol. 21 Issue 4, p209
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Renal dysfunction following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is well recognized. The extent of perioperative renal impairment ranges from subclinical injury to established renal failure requiring dialysis. Its incidence varies considerably, depending on the definition and criteria used in the different studies. Acute renal failure (ARF) affects 1–5% of patients and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, impaired left ventricular function and advanced age, are recognized predisposing factors. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and is thought related to the systemic inflammatory response and renal hypoperfusion secondary to extracorporeal circulation. Non-pulsatile flow during CPB is thought to be an important aetiological factor, resulting in renal vasoconstriction and ischaemic renal injury. A theoretical reduction in the incidence and severity of postoperative renal impairment has been proposed by advocating the use of pulsatile flow during CPB, or eliminating CPB, especially in high-risk patients. The current evidence, however, is conflicting. Several large observational studies, including a large proportion of high-risk patients, have demonstrated a significant reduction in the frequency of renal failure in patients undergoing off-pump surgery. As older, sicker patients increasingly constitute the cardiac surgical population, the incidence of postoperative renal injury is likely to increase. Further studies addressing various renoprotective strategies in higher-risk patients are awaited.
ACCESSION #
21783201

 

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