Microdissection-Based Allelotyping: A Novel Technique to Determine the Temporal Sequence and Biological Aggressiveness of Colorectal Cancer

Gamblin, T. Clark; Finkelstein, Sydney D.; Upsal, Neil; Kaye, Jonathan D.; Blumberg, David
May 2006
American Surgeon;May2006, Vol. 72 Issue 5, p445
Academic Journal
Pathologic staging in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CA) is based on the concept that the timing of metastatic tumor spread is directly related to the depth of the primary tumor invasion. To evaluate the temporal sequence of CA metastasis, we performed microdissection mutational profiling at multiple microscopic sites of primary and metastatic CA specimens. Twenty-one cases of CA were selected from fixed-tissue archives. Primary tumors were microdissected at the deepest point of invasion. Comparative mutational profiling for different genomic loci [1p36(CCM = cutaneous malignant melanoma], 3p26(OGGI = 8 oxoguanine DNA glycosylase), 5q23 (APC, MCC = mutated in colorectal cancer), 9p21(p16/CDKN2A = cyclin-dependent kinase 2A), 10q23(PTEN = phosphatase and tensin homolog [mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1]), 12p12(K-ras-2 point mutation), 17p13(TP53), 18q25(DCC = deleted in colorectal cancer) was carried out on each microdissected tissue target using microsatellite loss of heterozygosity determination or DNA sequencing. All primary and metastatic sites of CA manifested acquired mutational change in 18 to 91 per cent of the genomic markers. In 15/21 (71%) cases, metastatic sites lacked a specific allelic loss seen in the corresponding primary tumor, indicating that the metastasis occurred before maximal depth of primary invasion. This was further supported by discordant mutational profiles between primary and secondary tumors, requiring divergent clonal evolution. This is the first report describing the temporal sequence and significance of sequential mutational acquisition in clinical tissue specimens with potential implications for a new molecular pathology approach to classify human cancer.


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