Critical Cues Help First-Grade Students' Achievement in Handstands and Forward Rolls

April 1993
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education;Apr1993, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p301
Academic Journal
This article focuses on two studies that were done to determine the effectiveness of giving "critical cues" to first-grade subjects as they learned to perform handstands and forward rolls. Both studies took place in a public school setting using intact first-grade classes randomly assigned to different groups (handstands N =69; forward rolls N = 44), All subjects were pretested, posttested immediately following treatment, and posttested again several months later, Pre- and posttest scores were analyzed using a factorial analysis with repeated measures. Results from the two studies would seem to support the learning theory that early stages of learning motor skills are dominated by cognitive concerns. Critical cues seemed to help young learners become cognitively aware and to then concentrate on the important biomechanical action they needed to practice to achieve significant, p<.05, long-term improvement in their handstands and their forward rolls.


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