The Influence of School Principals on Management Time and Student Activity Time for Two Elementary Physical Education Teachers

Ratliffe, Tom
January 1986
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education;Jan1986, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p117
Academic Journal
The study investigated the effects of behavioral interventions conducted by two school principals on selected teaching behaviors of physical education teachers. Subjects were two physical education teachers and two elementary school principals. The interventions consisted of (a) the principals conducting a standard observation and sharing session with the teacher, (b) the principals conducting an observation and sharing session after learning an observation system by viewing an instructional videotape, and (c) the teachers viewing the instructional videotape and learning the observation system. The dependent variables were student activity time, management time, and teacher feedback. Teacher behaviors were recorded using the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE) 1982 Revision Coding Instrument (Siedentop, Tousignant, & Parker, 1982) and audiotape recordings. Visual inspection and comparison of the mean percentages during each phase indicated that activity time and management time did not change after the principals conducted their standard observation procedures. An increase in student activity time and a decrease in management time did occur after the second and third intervention procedures. The combined effect of the interventions was to lower management time and increase student activity time for both teachers.


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