TITLE

Physiological adaptation in early human pregnancy: adaptation to balance maternal—fetal demands

AUTHOR(S)
Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Wolfe, Larry A.
PUB. DATE
February 2006
SOURCE
Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism;Feb2006, Vol. 31 Issue 1, p1
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
After conception, the corpus luteum, placenta, and developing embryo release hormones, growth factors, and other substances into the maternal circulation. These substances trigger a cascade of events that transform the functioning of the maternal cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems, which in turn alter the physicochemical determinants of [H+]. Following implantation, maternal adaptations fulfill 4 important functions that support fetal growth. Increased availability of substrates and precursors for fetal–placental metabolism and hormone production is mediated by increases in dietary intake, as well as endocrine changes that increase the availability of glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Transport capacity is enhanced by increases in cardiac output, facilitating the transport of substrates and precursors to the placenta, and fetal waste products to maternal organs for disposal. Maternal–fetal exchange is regulated by the placenta after 10–12 weeks gestation, but it may occur through histiotrophic mechanisms before this time. Disposal of additional waste products (heat, carbon dioxide, and metabolic byproducts) occurs through peripheral vasodilation and increases in skin blood flow, ventilation, and renal filtration. The maternal physiological adaptations described above must meet the combined demands of maternal exercise and fetal growth. More research is needed to formulate evidence-based guidelines for healthy physical activity in early pregnancy.
ACCESSION #
20360422

 

Related Articles

  • Gelatinases, endonuclease and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor during development and regression of swine luteal tissue. Ribeiro, Luciana Andrea; Turba, Maria Elena; Zannoni, Augusta; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica // BMC Developmental Biology;2006, Vol. 6, p58 

    Background: The development and regression of corpus luteum (CL) is characterized by an intense angiogenesis and angioregression accompanied by luteal tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of angiogenesis, promoting...

  • Angiogenesis in the human corpus luteum. SUGINO, NORIHIRO; MATSUOKA, AKI; TANIGUCHI, KEN; TAMURA, HIROSHI // Reproductive Medicine & Biology;Jun2008, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p91 

    Angiogenesis is important for the formation and development of the corpus luteum and for maintenance of luteal function. Blood vessel regression is an important physiological phenomenon in the corpus luteum, which is associated with tissue involution during structural luteolysis. Angiogenesis...

  • Day 14 maternal serum progesterone levels predict pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI treatment cycles: a prospective study. G. Ioannidis; G. Sacks; N. Reddy; L. Seyani; R. Margara; S. Lavery; G. Trew // Human Reproduction;Mar2005, Vol. 20 Issue 3, p741 

    BACKGROUND: Serum progesterone has been advocated as a tool in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. We conducted this prospective study in order to investigate the potential value of early (14 days after oocyte recovery) serum progesterone measurement, in women undergoing IVF/ICSI and...

  • Conference Abstracts.  // Fertility Weekly;6/3/2002, p18 

    The article presents various conference abstracts related to pregnancy published in the periodical "Fertility Weekly." According to an abstract presented by authors at the Meeting of the German Society of Endocrinology (DGE), held in Gottingen, Germany, in humans and non-human primates, relaxin...

  • Vaginal bleeding in very early pregnancy. E.W. Harville; A.J. Wilcox; D.D. Baird; C.R. Weinberg // Human Reproduction;Sep2003, Vol. 18 Issue 9, p1944 

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the occurrence and patterns of vaginal bleeding during the earliest stages of pregnancy. We explore this in a prospective study of early pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 221 healthy women kept daily diaries and provided daily urine samples while trying to become...

  • Recombinant versus urinary gonadotrophins for triggering ovulation in assisted conception. Hesham Al-Inany; Mohamed A. Aboulghar; Ragaa T. Mansour; Michelle Proctor // Human Reproduction;Aug2005, Vol. 20 Issue 8, p2061 

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous recombinant (r) HCG and high-dose rLH compared with intramuscular urinary (u) uHCG for inducing final oocyte maturation and triggering ovulation. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Menstrual...

  • Can we eliminate severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome? Raoul Orvieto // Human Reproduction;Feb2005, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p320 

    The desire of some couples for children is so strong that they are willing to accept a modicum of risk to treat their infertility. Ideally, assisted reproduction technology practitioners seek a balance between optimum ovarian stimulation and successful treatment outcome with minimal rate of...

  • Changes in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 and -2 in the macaque corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle. Hazzard, T.M.; Christenson, L.K.; Stouffer, R.L. // MHR: Basic Science of Reproductive Medicine;Nov2000, Vol. 6 Issue 11 

    Examines the dynamic expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 and -2 in the macaque corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle. Role of the endothelial cell-specific factors in the development, maintenance and regression of the primate corpus luteum; Angiogenic factor...

  • A prospective evaluation of a single-visit strategy to manage pregnancies of unknown location. G. Condous; E. Okaro; A. Khalid; C. Lu; S. Van Huffel; D. Timmerman; T. Bourne // Human Reproduction;May2005, Vol. 20 Issue 5, p1398 

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess whether women with a pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) can be safely excluded from potentially unnecessary multiple clinic visits. METHODS: A single-visit protocol was developed based upon data from 200 consecutive PULs. PULs were divided into groups according...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics