Cardiopulmonary bypass for a coronary artery bypass graft patient with heterozygous protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency

Schneider, Susan; Sakert, Tamara; Lucke, John; McKeown, Peter; Sharma, Ajeet
March 2006
Perfusion;Mar2006, Vol. 21 Issue 2, p117
Academic Journal
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) poses great risks for hypercoagulable patients and requires management techniques to ensure an optimal outcome free from thrombotic events. This case report reviews perfusion management techniques that may contribute to a safer CPB experience for a patient deficient in both protein C and protein S. A patient with heterozygous protein C deficiency is at increased risk of thrombosis, especially in the venous circulation. Since it is an essential cofactor for activated protein C, deficiency of free protein S is also linked to a hypercoagulable condition. A 52-year-old male presented to our institution with a past medical history of hypercoagulable state, multiple deep vein thromboses, pulmonary embolisms, and stroke. He was scheduled for two-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery to be followed by right carotid endarterectomy (RCEA) before discharge. The anesthesia and perfusion teams worked closely together to ensure that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was given intraoperatively at appropriate times. Heparin dose response and protamine dosage was determined with hemostasis management system (HMS) analysis. The closed CPB circuit and cannulae were Carmeda bonded. Rapid autologous priming, along with the use of a hemoconcentrator, kept the hematocrit above 21 during CPB. Zero-balance ultrafiltration and leukocyte depletion were initiated during rewarming to aid in attenuation of the inflammatory response. To conserve coagulation factors, all pump blood was ultrafiltrated post-CPB and returned to the patient. Laboratory samples drawn on postoperative day (POD) one measured normal protein C activity with subnormal protein S activity. On POD six, the patient underwent RCEA and he was discharged on POD eight without complications.


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