O2 replenishment to fish nests: males adjust brood care to ambient conditions and brood development

Bridget S. Green; Mark I. McCormick
March 2005
Behavioral Ecology;Mar2005, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p389
Academic Journal
Parental care through nest defense and maintenance enhances offspring success. In nature, obligate anemone-dwelling fishes and their nests of benthic eggs are protected against most predators by their host anemone; thus, parental care generally consists of nest tending through fanning and mouthing. Tending in fishes is believed to oxygenate the eggs; however, a real-time link between fanning and oxygenation is tenuous. This study investigated whether tending modified the oxygen microenvironment of the embryos and, subsequently, whether tending was modified according to ambient dissolved oxygen (DO), increasing metabolic demands of developing embryos, and water temperature. There was a time lag of approximately 1 s between tending and increases in the amount of oxygen within the nest, demonstrating that DO is directly affected by parental tending. While there was evidence of biparental care, males invested more time tending embryos (40% initially) than did females (20–30%), and male investment increased to 70% as embryo development progressed and embryonic metabolic demands increased. Additionally, male fish adjusted tending effort on a diel cycle as ambient DO fluctuated: time spent tending was lowest between 1000 and 1400 h (35%), when ambient DO was highest, and increased throughout the day, reaching a peak of 70% between 2200 and 0200 h, when ambient DO was lowest. Increased water temperature reduced the number of tending bouts per minute throughout the day but did not influence any other aspect of tending behavior. These results suggest that fish adjust tending behavior coincident to changing conditions in the nest, both on a daily basis and throughout development of the embryos.


Related Articles

  • Parental-rights revolt takes root across US. Tyson, Ann Scott // Christian Science Monitor;7/30/96, Vol. 88 Issue 171, p1 

    Reports on parents, conservative and religious-right groups' protest against what they view as wide-spread government infringements of parental rights. Wichita, Kansas' new policy on `parental rights' requiring schools to obtain written consent from a legal custodian before asking students...

  • Parents, like drivers, should be licensed.  // USA Today Magazine;Mar96, Vol. 124 Issue 2610, p8 

    Focuses on the suggestion of psychologist David Lykken that parents should be required to get parenting licenses. Comparison with the government policy of issuing licenses to drive; Use of parenting licenses to attack anti-social behavior and the cycle of dependency, and to ensure that children...

  • Empirical relationships between birth order and two types of parental feedback. Claxton, Reid P. // Psychological Record;Fall94, Vol. 44 Issue 4, p475 

    Investigates the relationships between perceived parental feedback and birth order. Scales adapted in the study; Background on parental feedback; Study of birth order; Birth order and socialization; Trait attributions; Incidence of birth positions; Birth order and careers; Hypothetical...

  • CAN WELLNESS BE FORCED ON YOUR CHILDREN?  // Ardell Wellness Report;Fall2000, Issue 57, p3 

    Gives advice on how to encourage children to conform to parental health ideas.

  • How marital conflict affects children. Buehler, Cheryl // Stepfamilies;Fall94, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p12 

    Focuses on ways in which marital conflicts affect children. Ways in which children and adolescents may be protected from the harmful effects of parents or parents and stepparents who fight; How parents disagree about issues as the aspect of marital conflict that most affects children; Parenting...

  • The son also rises. Ayers, William; Dohrn, Bernadine // Mothering;Mar/Apr2000, Issue 99, p34 

    Presents the parenting experience of authors in rearing sons in the United States. Discussion on anti-sexism; Influence of parents on values of children; Importance of parental guidance during formative years of a child.

  • MIRIAM AROND.  // Good Housekeeping;May2015, Vol. 260 Issue 5, p122 

    The article discusses parenting as a balancing act focusing on the importance of passing on wisdom and care from one generation to another.

  • Living while under the (parental) influence. Goodwin, Jan // Cosmopolitan;Nov94, Vol. 217 Issue 5, p214 

    Focuses on parental influences on their adult children. Parents' use of guilt; Manipulations; Complications; Intrusion on children's private lives; Controls; Anecdotes.

  • It Takes Teamwork. Langley, Karen // Campus Life;Oct2003, Vol. 62 Issue 3, p48 

    Focuses on the parental involvement in the college search process. Planning for family visit to a college campus; Togetherness in prayer for the right college choice; Willingness between the parents and the students to compromise.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics