Diagnosis of Tropospheric Moisture over Saudi Arabia and Influences of IOD and ENSO

Chakraborty, Arun; Behera, Swadhin K.; Mujumdar, Milind; Ohba, Ryohji; Yamagata, Toshio
February 2006
Monthly Weather Review;Feb2006, Vol. 134 Issue 2, p598
Academic Journal
A diagnostic study of atmospheric moisture data over Saudi Arabia derived from a 43-yr National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis revealed that moisture convergence in the lower troposphere and divergence in and above the middle troposphere occurs throughout the year. Although the amount of precipitable water content in the middle troposphere is high, precipitation is less than expected over this semiarid region during a boreal summer monsoon season because of strong moisture divergence. The net tropospheric moisture flux over the arid and semiarid regions of Saudi Arabia shows seasonal and interannual variability. The seasonal variability has a strong semiannual signal with its primary peak February–April and its secondary peak June–August. This pattern is consistent with a similar semiannual signal observed in rainfall climatology. The restricted moisture supply to southwestern Saudi Arabia during summer presumably explains the lack of precipitation in other areas of the country. Winter precipitation, however, is widespread. The increased transport of net atmospheric moisture flux is higher during El Niño and positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) phenomena. During these events, influx across the Red Sea (west) side of Saudi Arabia increases. The net flux to the region is reduced by a slight increase of outflux across the Persian Gulf (east) side. Reanalysis data and model-sensitivity experiments show that El Niño or a concurrent positive IOD and El Niño event more strongly amplify net transport than does an independent positive IOD event. The partial-lag correlation analysis with net moisture flux from the Red Sea side shows that the positive IOD mode has a peak correlation coefficient of ∼0.5 with close to a 5-month lead and that El Niño has a peak correlation coefficient of ∼0.6 with close to a 2-month lead.


Related Articles

  • Characteristics of Dryline Passage during COPS-91. Crawford, Todd M.; Bluestein, Howard B. // Monthly Weather Review;Apr97, Vol. 125 Issue 4, p463 

    The characteristics of dryline passage are documented through an analysis of data from an instrumented surface mesonetwork in the Texas panhandle, and western and central Oklahoma during the Cooperative Okla-homa Profiler Studies field program. Some eastward-moving drylines at the surface...

  • The Climate of Death Valley, California. Roof, Steven; Callagan, Charlie // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society;Dec2003, Vol. 84 Issue 12, p1725 

    Death Valley, California, is one of the most extreme environments in the world. The floor of the valley, which is below sea level, is one of the hottest and driest places on Earth. This article and associated data files compile and describe the complete daily weather observations for Greenland...

  • Atmospheric Stability in a Generalized Barotropic Model. Mitas, Christos M.; Robinson, Walter A. // Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences;2/1/2005, Vol. 62 Issue 2, p476 

    An empirical modification of conventional barotropic dynamics is implemented to study the low-frequency variability (LFV) of the upper troposphere. Using the conservation of potential vorticity, generalized spectral barotropic operators that apply at single isentropic levels are constructed. In...

  • Climate Research and Seasonal Forecasting for West Africans: Perceptions, Dissemination, and Use? Tarhule, Aondover; Lamb, Peter J. // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society;Dec2003, Vol. 84 Issue 12, p1741 

    Beginning in response to the disastrous drought of 1968–73, considerable research and monitoring have focused on the characteristics, causes, predictability, and impacts of West African Soudano–Sahel (10°–18°N) rainfall variability and drought. While these efforts have...

  • How Australia Dried Out. MCLAREN, SANDRA; WALLACE, MALCOLM // Australasian Science;Jun2010, Vol. 31 Issue 5, p21 

    The article discusses the history of the onset of arid climatic conditions in southeastern Australia. Experts theorized that the shift from a wet climate to an arid one happened during the Neogene period. According to the article, the major climatic changes started nearly 1.4 million years ago....

  • Editor's Preface. Morgan, Robert F. // Journal of Tropical Psychology;Jun2012, Vol. 2, p00 

    The article provides an overview of the "Journal of Tropical Psychology," highlighting critical issues including climate change as well as understanding the psychology of the planetary future and the psychological discoveries of the rapidly growing torrid climate-related countries. It mentions...

  • Book review: Dryland Climatology. Parker, Adrian G // Holocene;May2013, Vol. 23 Issue 5, p766 

    The article reviews the book "Dryland Climatology," by Sharon E. Nicholson.

  • 'Farming on the edge' in arid western South Africa: climate change and agriculture in marginal environments. Archer, E.R.M.; Oettlé, N.M.; Louw, R.; Tadross, M.A. // Geography;Summer2008, Vol. 93 Issue 2, p98 

    Agriculture in southern Africa is predicted to be particularly severely affected by climate change, and hence is considered a priority area for creating an enabling environment for adaptation. The study presented here, based in the arid Suid Bokkeveld region of South Africa, aims to increase the...

  • Dynamics of the West African Monsoon Jump. Hagos, Samson M.; Cook, Kerry H. // Journal of Climate;Nov2007, Vol. 20 Issue 21, p5264 

    The observed abrupt latitudinal shift of maximum precipitation from the Guinean coast into the Sahel region in June, known as the West African monsoon jump, is studied using a regional climate model. Moisture, momentum, and energy budget analyses are used to better understand the physical...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics