A Comparison of Phonological Skills of Boys With Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen
October 2005
Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research;Oct2005, Vol. 48 Issue 5, p980
Academic Journal
In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing boys, ages 2 to 6 years, who were matched for nonverbal mental age to both the boys with fragile X syndrome and the boys with Down syndrome. All participants were administered a standardized articulation test, and their sound accuracy, phonological process, and proportion of whole-word proximity scores were analyzed. Although boys with fragile X syndrome were delayed in their speech development, they did not differ from the typically developing, mental-age-matched boys in the percentage of correct early-, middle-, and late-developing consonants; phonological processes; or whole-word proximity scores. Furthermore, boys with fragile X syndrome had fewer errors on early-, middle-, and late-developing consonants; fewer syllable structure processes; and higher whole-word proximity scores than did boys with Down syndrome. Boys with Down syndrome also were delayed in their speech development, yet their phonological inventories, occurrences of phonological processes, and proportion of whole-word proximity scores indicated greater delays in their phonological development than the younger, typically developing boys. These results suggest that males with fragile X syndrome display phonological characteristics in isolated words similar to younger, typically developing children, whereas males with Down syndrome show greater delays as well as some developmental differences compared with both the males with fragile X syndrome and typically developing males.


Related Articles

  • Prevalence of the Fragile X Syndrome Among Estonian Mentally Retarded and the Entire Children's Population. Puusepp, Helen; Kahre, Tiina; Sibul, Hiljar; Soo, Viljo; Lind, Ilona; Raukas, Elve; Õunap, Katrin // Journal of Child Neurology;Dec2008, Vol. 23 Issue 12, p1400 

    The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among Estonian mentally retarded and also among the entire children's population born during the years 1984-2005. The study group consisted of 516 patients (448 boys and 68 girls) who were screened for full mutations in...

  • Editorial. Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Gorakshakar, Ajit // Indian Journal of Human Genetics;Sep-Dec2009, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p85 

    The authors reflect on the genetics of autism and mental retardation. The authors states that intellectual disability involves a wide spectrum of conditions. They explain that two common causes of mental retardation are Down's syndrome and Fragile X syndrome, both of which can be diagnosed...

  • Mongolism in Newborn Infants. Hall, Bertil // Clinical Pediatrics;Jan1966, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p4 

    The individual clinical manifestations of mongolism in older children are highly variable, and only some of these features are more or less regularly seen: mental retardation, recurrent conjunctivitis, furrowed tongue, short curved little finger, abnormal teeth, and narrow high palate. In...

  • Life With Anthony. Renkl, Margaret // Parenting;Dec2007, Vol. 21 Issue 11, p121 

    The article focuses on Down syndrome and the case of 19-month old Anthony Spellman. Down syndrome is a genetic anomaly in which a person has three copies of the 21st chromosome, instead of the standard two. One in every 733 babies in the U.S. is born with Down syndrome, most to parents, like the...

  • DO CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME HAVE DIFFICULTY IN COUNTING AND WHY? Abdelahmeed, Hala // International Journal of Special Education;Jun2007, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p129 

    A systematic review of literature in the area of counting in Down syndrome was conducted to identify and analyze ability to count of children with Down syndrome. We firstly reviewed the most famous theories which have explained how typically developing children acquire counting, and then we...

  • Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study. D’Souza, Dean; D’Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette // PLoS ONE;10/1/2015, Vol. 10 Issue 10, p1 

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers’ mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in...

  • Fragile X Syndrome.  // Encyclopedic Reference of Cancer;2001, p343 

    A definition of the term "Fragile X syndrome" is presented. It refers to an X-linked hereditary disorder characterized by mental retardation in affected males and mild mental retardation in some carrier females. The Fragile X syndrome is a leading cause of familial mental retardation in humans....

  • Un caso de síndrome X Frágil y su intervención desde la Atención Infantil Temprana. Robles Bello, Ma Auxiliadora // Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology;2011, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p1333 

    Introduction. The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first most common cause of intellectual disability and the second associated with genetic factors, only surpassed by the Down syndrome. It notes in the research studies that there is a great variability phenotype of the behavior that this...

  • Fragile X Gene Stability in Basque Valleys: Prevalence of Premutation and Intermediate Alleles. ARRIETA, I.; TÉLEZ, M.; HUERTA, I.; FLORES, P.; CRIADO, B.; RAMÍREZ, J. M.; BARASOAIN, M.; GÓNZALEZ, A. J. // Human Biology;Dec2008, Vol. 80 Issue 6, p593 

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. The molecular basis is usually the unstable expansion of a CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene. We previously analyzed a sample of two Basque valleys. In the present work we extend the study to another five isolated valleys. The...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics